文化研究 cultural studies


Cultural Studies

What is cultural studies?
? According to cultural critic Raymond Williams, it is hard to define cultural studies mostly because the word ―culture‖ is notoriously hard to define, that is, there seems to be no conclusive definition about what culture is.

What is cultural studies?
? What is culture? The English word ―culture‖ ―comes from the Latin ?colere‘, which is related to cult or worship‖. Culture originated from the most basic human activities at that time, cultivation or tillage. In China, the earliest meaning for ―culture‖ is the way to control the country through education. It is a contrast to ―military‖ force(武功).

What is cultural studies?
? What is culture? Edward Burnett Tylor was an anthropologist whose pioneering, Primitive Culture(1871), begins, ―Culture or civilization, taken in its widest ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society‖. ——From A Handbook of

Critical Approaches to Literature

What is cultural studies?
? What is culture? ? In according to Raymond Williams, culture is ordinary, which means a whole way of life. ? Although it is so hard to give an exact definition of culture, we can summarize what culture is from the broad sense and the narrow sense, just as what Chinese dictionary of《辞海》 (Dictionary of Words) puts:

What is cultural studies?
? What is culture? ? From its broad sense, culture is the total sum of material and spiritual wealth created by human beings during the historical progress of human society. From its narrow sense, culture belongs to ideology, which is consisted by the regulations and organizations corresponding to it. In addition to that, culture is a historic event, which represents the benefit of certain class or ethnic groups.

What is cultural studies?
? Cultural studies is the practice of which what we call ?theory‘ for short is the theory. ? If you had to say what ?theory‘ is the theory of, the answer would be something like ?signifying practice‘, the production and representation of experience, and the constitution of human subjects.
——From

Literary Theory

What is cultural studies?
Cultural Studies = the Study of Culture
文化研究
?

?

文化的研究

Cultural Studies = Cultural Criticism
文化研究 文化批评

Cultural Studies vs the Study of Culture
? Cultural studies is the core of the study of culture, and contributes to the development of the study of culture.

Cultural Studies

vs

Cultural Criticism

? Cultural criticism mainly refers to study literature from cultural perspective. ? Besides the literary field, cultural studies also pay their attention on other cultural phenomena in people‘s daily life.

Origin
After WWⅡ, the New Left no longer analysis the circumstances of the UK from economic perspective, but cultural perspective.

The term was coined by Richard Hoggart in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies or CCCS.

The Use of Literary and Culture and Society

Other European countries and the US

? The New Left is a term used mainly in the UK and US in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960 and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms. Against the inhumanity of both Stalinism and Western capitalism, the New Left embraced the idea of ?socialist humanism ?.

Theoretical Sources
? F.R. Leavisism ? Althusser’s Theory of Ideology ? Gramsci’s Cultural Hegemony

Matthew Arnold(1822-1888)
Matthew Arnold was a major Victorian poet, the principal English literary critic of his generation, an important commentator on society and culture, and an effective government official. Arnold began to publish literary criticism after his appointment in 1857 as professor of poetry at Oxford.

The book--Culture and Anarchy
In the book Culture and Anarchy , Arnold said culture is "the best that has been thought and said". ? "the best that has been thought and said," would provide standards to resist the errors and corruptions of contemporary life. Culture and Anarchy was trying to uphold the classic canon against the spreading “philistine culture”.

F.R. Leavisism
? Leavisism(利维斯主义):F.R.Leavis was heavily influenced by Matthew Arnold. He sought to use the educational system to distribute literary knowledge and appreciation more widely; leavisites promoted the “great tradition” of Shakespeare and Austen in order to improve the moral sensibilities of readers. The threat to this project was mass civilization. In Leavis’ famous book Mass Civilization and Minority Culture , he advocated the cultural elitism.

? 利维斯认为大众文化侵蚀了高雅文学带 来的“人类的最佳体验”和文化格调。 但是他对大众文化的批判却从反方向启 发了文化研究,他对流行文化的态度虽 说是诘难和贬抑性的,但他毕竟将流行 文化纳入文学研究领域,扩大了先前有 些狭隘和专门的文学研究话语.

F.R.Leavis

He is a British literary critic. He attended and later taught at Cambridge University. He brought a new seriousness to criticism, believing that the critic's duty is to assess works according to the author's moral position. He founded Scrutiny, a journal (published 1932 – 53) often regarded as his greatest contribution to English letters.

Major works:
? Mass Civilization and Minority Culture (1930) ? New Bearings in English Poetry (1932) ? The Great Tradition (1948) ? The Common Pursuit (1952)

In leavis’ opinion, mass In leavis’ opinion, mass civilization is commercialized culture is a it is aof kind kind of mass culture; cultureof inferior andand culture of inferior philistine: movie, philistine: movie, broadcasting, broadcasting, popular popular music, popular novels and advertisement, etc. and music, popular novels in a sense, it is consumer culture advertisement, etc. In a adopted it is consumer sense, by the ill-educated public thoughtlessly.

culture adopted by the ill-educated public thoughtlessly.

What is “mass civilization”?

What is “cultural elitism”?
It advocates that culture belong to minority and only can be understood and appreciated by minority.

In any period it is upon a very small minority that the discerning appreciation of art and literature depends: it is (apart from cases of the simple and familiar) only a few who are capable of unprompted, first-hand judgment. They are still a small minority. From: F. R. Leavis: Mass Civilization and Minority Culture (1930)

How to define the “minority”?

The social function of the minority:

Upon this minority depends our power of profiting by the finest human experience of the past; they keep alive the subtlest and most perishable parts of tradition. Upon them depend the implicit standards that order the finer living of an age. This minority, for example, the critics, is the centre of society.

Mass Civilization and Minority Culture
(1930)

From: F. R. Leavis:

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher. He was born in Algeria and studied at the ?cole Normale Supérieure in Paris, where he eventually became Professor of Philosophy. ? Althusser's best-known essay is

Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses: Notes Toward an Investigation.

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? Althusser defined ideology as ―a representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. organic part of every social totality‖ ? According to Althusser, ideology expresses not the relation between them and their conditions of existence. This presupposes both a real relation between them and an "imaginary" relation. Ideology is the expression of the relation between men and their "world", that is, the over determined unity of the real relation and the imaginary relation between them and their conditions of existence. Ideologies convince the oppressed that all is well with world.


Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? In Althusser's opinion, a literary text is structured as much by what is absent (what is not said) as by what is present (what is said). Althusser argues that if people are to fully understand the meaning of a cultural text, they have to be aware of not only what is in a text, but also the assumptions which inform it (and which may not appear in the text itself in any straightforward way but exist only in the text's problematic). A problematic is the assumptions, motivations, underlying ideas, etc, from which a cultural text is made.

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? Ideology is a lived, material practice, customs, patterns of behaviors— reproduced through the practices and productions of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA): education, religion, the family, the media, organization, etc.

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? Man is an ideological animal by nature. ? According to this second definition "all ideology has the function (which defined it)" of "constructing concrete individuals as subjects." Ideological subjects are produced by acts of "hailing" or "interpellation".

E.g. Advertisement

? This definition of ideology had a significant effect on the field of cultural studies. For example, Judith Williamson deploys Althusser's second definition of ideology in her influence study of advertising, decoding advertisements. She argues that advertising is ideological in the sense that it represents an imaginary relationship to our real conditions of existence. Instead of class distinctions based on our role in the process of production, advertising continually suggests that what really matters are distinctions based on the consumption of particular goods. Thus, social identity becomes a question of what people consume rather than what people producer. Like all ideology, advertising functions by interpellation: it creates subjects who in turn are subjected to its meanings and its patterns of consumption. The consumer is interpellated to make meaning and consume again.

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? What is the shortcoming of Althusser’s theory of ideology?
? One of the problems with Althusser's second mode of ideology, and its application in cultural theory, is that it seemed to work too well. Men and women are always successfully reproduced with all the necessary ideological habits required by the capitalist mode of production; there is no sense of failure, let alone any notion of conflict. In terms of popular culture, do advertisements, for example, always successfully interpellate us as consuming subjects? As for that shortcoming, many working within the field of cultural studies turned to the work of the Italian Marxist.

Althusser’s Theory of Ideology
? Applying Althusser’s theory of ideology directly to analyse literary text or cultural phenomena is the most important contribution to cultural studies.

Gramsci's Theory of Cultural Hegemony
Antonio Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian writer, politician, political theorist, sociologist, and linguist. He was a founding member and onetime leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important Marxist thinkers in the 20th century. His writings are heavily concerned with the analysis of culture and political leadership and he is notable as a highly original thinker within modern European thought. He is renowned for his concept of cultural hegemony as a means of maintaining the state in a capitalist society.

The definition of cultural hegemony
By cultural hegemony, Gramsci meant the permeation throughout society of an entire system of values, attitudes, beliefs and morality that has the effect of supporting the status quo in power relations. Hegemony in this sense might be defined as an 'organizing principle' that is diffused by the process of socialization into every area of daily life. To the extent that this prevailing consciousness is internalized by the population it becomes part of what is generally called 'common sense' so that the philosophy, culture and morality of the ruling elite comes to appear as the natural order of things.

Violence and Law Based on Government

Political society

Army
Judicial department

Nation

schools
Civil society Varieties of media …

Based on
Culture and Ethic

Cultural hegemony

Cultural Hegemony
? Using Gramscian analysis, popular culture is a “negotiated mix of intentions and counterintentions”; both from “above” and from “below”, both “commercial” and “authentic”; a shifting balance of forces between resistance and incorporation. Popular culture is a contradictory mix of competing interests and values; neither middle nor working class, neither racist nor non-racist…always a shifting balance between the two (what Gramsci calls “a compromise equilibrium”). ? 正是因为葛兰西对文化领导权和大众文化领域的 关注,文化研究获得新的思路。

US TV Series

How can we solve this problem?
? Keeping a dialectical view ? Implementing the “going out” strategy in real earnest.

Characteristics
? Cultural studies transcends the confines of a particular discipline such as literary criticism or history. ? Cultural studies is politically engaged. ? Cultural studies denies the separating of ―high‖ and ―low‖

? Cultural studies analyzes not only the cultural work that is produced but also the means of production.

Elements of cultural studies: Marxism / new historicism / feminism /gender studies / anthropology studies of race and ethnicity / film theory / sociology urban studies / public policy studies / popular cultural studies /postcolonial studies

Three ways to study culture
A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature (the 4th edition)
1. British Cultural Materialism 2. The New Historicism 3. American Multiculturalism

Cultural materialism
? Cultural materialism study cultural texts and practices in order to reconstitute or re construct the experiences, values, etc-the structure feeling of particular groups or classes or whole societies, in order to better understand the lives of those who lived the culture. The scholars in this field argues that popular culture is worth studying.

Representatives
? Richard Hoggart ? Raymond Williams ? Stuart Hall

Richard Hoggart
? Herbert Richard Hoggart (born 24 September 1918) is a British academic whose career has covered the fields of sociology, English literature and cultural studies, with emphasis on British popular culture. ? 理查· 霍加特是伯明翰大学当代文 化研究中心的第一任主任,英国文 学教授。他1957年发表的《文化 的用途》(The Uses of Literacy) 开始了文化研究的雏形。

Raymond Williams
? Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. He was an influential figure within the cultral materialism. He is the father of cultural studies. His writings are about politics, culture, the mass media and literature. Some 750,000 copies of his books have sold in UK editions alone, and there are many translations available. His work laid the foundations for the field of the cultural materialist approach. The definition of culture that Williams made is one of significant contributions to cultural studies.

? 威廉斯对文化的定义,奠定了“文化研 究”平民化和非精英化的基础,是整个 文化研究得以发展的基石。 ? In according to Raymond Williams, culture is ordinary, which means a whole way of life.

Stuart Hall
? Stuart Hall (born 3 February 1932, Kingston, Jamaica, then a British colony) is a cultural theorist and sociologist who has lived and worked in the United Kingdom since 1951. Hall, along with Richard Hoggart and Raymond Williams, was one of the founding figures of the school of thought that is now known as British Cultural Studies or The Birmingham School of Cultural Studies. He was President of the British Sociological Association 1995-1997. ? At the invitation of Hoggart, Hall joined the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University in 1964. Hall took over from Hoggart as director of the Centre in 1968, and remained there until 1979. While at the Centre, Hall is credited with playing a role in expanding the scope of cultural studies to deal with race and gender, and with helping to incorporate new ideas derived from the work of French theorists.

Stuart Hall
Hall‘s paper ’Encoding/decoding‘ published in 1973 had a major influence on cultural studies, and many of the terms it set forth remain influential in the field. Generally the essay is viewed as marking a turning point in Hall’s research, towards structuralism and provides insight into some of the main theoretical developments. Hall was exploring during his time at Birmingham. The essay takes up and challenges longheld assumptions on how media messages are produced, circulated and consumed, proposing a new theory of communication.

Encoding/decoding
? Sender Information Receiver ? 第一阶段:电视话语意义的生产 第二阶段:“成品”阶段 第三阶段:解码

The Introduction of New Historicism:
It is a term applied to a trend in American academic literary studies that emphasized the historical nature of literary texts.

Process

The Introduction of New Historicism
The declination of New criticism

The New Historicism

developing with PostStructuralism , Feminist theory, Marxist theory in the late 1970 and early 1980
In the next two decades after its appearance,it was gradually recognized because of its unique view of history and text. By giving the words “New Historicism” in Genre,Stephen Greenblatt is regarded as the founder of this school. Hayden White, Louis Adrian Montrose and so on also make their respective contributions to the development and enrichment of the theory.

The New Historicism
历 史 是 一 种 话 语
宣称所有的历史是主观的,是被人写出来的, 写的人的个人偏见影响了对过去的阐释 历史并不能为我们提供某种真理,也从来不会 给我们有关于过去事件的完整的精确的图景 历史与其他学科一样,是思考与描 述世界的一种“话语”

The New Historicism
Text is a product of its culture, but it also affects that culture in return. 将文本历史化。 文本于是成了历史和文化的产物, 成了存在于作者、社会、习俗、制度和 社会实践的文化网络中的社会性文本。

The New Historicism
Investigates three areas of concern: 1. The life of the author 2. The social rules found within a text 3. A reflection of a work‘s historical situation in the text

The Definition of Multiculturalism
? Multiculturalism, as Professor Wang Enming, Professor Wang Xi and other scholars pointed out, is not only a group of social and political theories but also a series of social and political practices that argue for or focus on the importance of equality in educational, cultural, political and, nowadays, more and more social fields.

The Characteristics of Multiculturalism
? 美国是一个多元民族和族裔构成的国家,美国 文化是一种多元文化。
? 不同民族、族裔、性别和文化传统的美国人在 美国的经历是不同的,美国传统不能以某一个 民族或群体的历史经验为准绳 ? 群体认同和群体权利是多元文化主义的重要内 容,也是美国社会必须面临的现实。

―The melting pot‖ policy vs Multiculturalism policy
1965

Evaluation
? 文化研究的积极性在于它的宽容性和多元共存性,与人们 的文化生活之关系也越来越密切。它不断地改变研究兴趣 以适应情势变化,不屈从于权威,为不同社群提供知识和 活动空间。 ? 它的过分注重文化的无所不在性很容易模糊文学研究与文 化研究的分野,使高级典雅的文学研究淹没在文化研究的 大潮中,同时也导致对文学文本的分析研究流于大而无当 和缺乏深度;它所强调的所谓“文化相对论”使人们失去 了探求真理的信心,而对高雅文化和大众文化之界线的消 解只能是一个暂时的策略,并不能证明它本身也能生产出 具有永恒艺术价值的高级文化产品,此外,文化研究作为 一个研究领域,其理论和方法论还有待于完善。

Hamlet
? 在该剧第五幕中,有奥菲 利亚葬礼场面的描写,死 者的哥哥欧雷提斯跳入墓 穴与死者做最后的吻别, 紧接着哈姆雷特也跳入墓 穴要做吻别,遭到欧雷提 斯的阻挠。于是两人产生 了争执,两人约定以决斗 来解决纷争。


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