湖南省张家界市 2016 高考英语阅读理解和信息匹配一轮自练（4）
阅读理解。阅读下列四篇短文，从每小题后所给的 A,B,C 或 D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项。 Driving a car is not just handling controls and judging speed and distance.It requires you to predict what other road users will do and get ready to react to something unexpected.When alcohol is consumed， it enters your bloodstream and acts as a depresant (抑制药)， damaging eyesight， judgement and c o?ordination (协调)， slowing down reaction time and greatly increasing the risk of accidents.Even below the drink driving limit， driving will be affected. Alcoho l may take a few minutes to be absorbed into the bloodstream and start action on the brain.Absorption rate is increased when drinking on an empty stomach or when consuming drinks mixed with fruit juice.To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee. The present Road Traffic Ordinance states clearly that the limit of alcohol concentration is： ●50 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of blood；or ●22 micrograms of alcohol per 100ml of breath；or ●67 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of uriue (尿液)． Drivers who cause traffic accidents，or who commit a moving traffic offence or are being suspected of drink driving will be tested. Any driver found drinking beyond the limit will be charged.The driver declared guilty may be fined a maximum of HK $25,000 and be sentenced to up to 3 years in prison and punished for 10 driving?offence points；or temporarily banned from driving. The same punishment applies to failing to provide speeimens(样本) for breath，blood or urine tests without good excuse. Drink driving is a criminal offence.Be a responsible driver，think before you drink. For the safety of yourself and other road users，never drive after consuming alcohol. 本文主要讲述酒后驾车的危害，对酒驾的惩罚等，呼吁人们为了自身和他人的健康，一定不 要酒后驾车。 1．The first paragraph is mainly about______. A．the introductions of driving skills C．the effect of drinking on driving B．the damage of drinking to your body D．the process of alcohol being absorbed
答案：C。主旨大意题。由第一段的“it enters your bloodstream and acts as a depressant， damaging eyesight， judgement and co?ordination， slowing down reaction time and greatly
increasing the risk of accidents.”可知，本段主要讲述酒后驾车的影响，故 C 项正确。 2．The underlined word “it” in the second paragraph refers to “______”． A．alcohol C．blood B．absorption D．process
答案：D。词义猜测题。由前半句“To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process”，可知，后半句表示“采取像淋浴或者是喝杯茶，咖啡等的措施来加速这个过程是 不可能的”故 it 指代 process，D 项正确。 3．Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A．Drinking below the drink driving limit has no effect on driving. B．Alcohol is taken in more quickly when drunk with fruit juice. C．Having a cup of tea helps to get rid of alcohol from the body. D．50 milligrams of alcohol per 100ml of breath is below the drink driving l imit. 答案：B。细节理解题。由第二段中“Absorption rate is increased when drinking on an empty stomach or when consuming drinks mixed with fruit juice”可知 B 项正确。 4．A driver suspected of drink driving______. A．should provide specimens for testing B．will be forbidden to drive for 3 years C．will be punished for 10 driving?offence points D．should pay a maximum fine of HK$25,000 答案：A。细节理解题。由文章信息“Drivers who cause traffic accidents ，or who commit a moving traffic offence or are being suspected of drink driving will be tested” 可知 A 项正确。
阅读理解。 Feel tired lately?Has a doctor said he can’t find anything wrong with you?Perhaps he sends you to a hospital,but all the advanced equipment there shows there is nothing wrong with you. Then,consider this:you might be in a state of sub-health(亚健康). Sub-health,also called the third state or gray state,is explained as borderline state between health and disease. According to the investigation by the National Organization,over 45 percent of
sub-health people are middle-a ged or elderly.The percentage is even higher among people who work in management positions as well as students around exam-week. Symptoms(征兆)include a lack of energy,depression,slow reactions,insomnia(失 眠),agitation, and poor memory.Other symptoms include shortness of breath,sweating and aching in the waist and legs. The key to preventing and recovering from su b-health,according to some medical experts,is to form good living habits, alternate work and rest, exercise regularly,and take part in open air activities. As for meals,people are advised to eat less salt and sugar.They should also eat more fresh vegetables,fruits,fish because they are rich in nutritional elements— vitamins and trace elements(微量元素)—that are important to the body. Nutrition experts point out that it is not good to eat too much at one meal because it may cause unhealthy changes in the digestive tract(消化道).They also say that a balanced diet is very helpful in avoiding sub-health. 1.When you are in a state of sub-health,you should ________. A .stay home and keep silent B. go to a doctor and buy some medicine C. not consider it very serious D. find out the reasons and relax yourself 提示:从全文可以看出，亚健康是身体对压力、疲劳的一种反应，即使最先进的仪器也查不出 病因。所以不必去医院，也不必吃药，但是不能听之任之，不认真对待。正确的方法是找出 原因、减轻压力、消除疲劳、平衡膳食。 答案:D 2.Middle-aged people may be easy to get sub-health because ________. A. they have used up their energy B. they have lost their living hopes C. they have more pressure in life and work D. they have changed their way of life 提示:亚健康的起因与疲劳有关系，但不是已将体力用完，排除 A 项。B、D 两项文章没涉及。 根据常识和第四段最后一句，我们也能判断正确答案为 C 项。
答案:C 3.The key to preventing you from falling into a state of sub-health i s to ________. A. keep on worki ng regularly C. form good living habits B. go to sleep a bit earlier D. take medicine if necessary
答案:C 文章倒数第三段第一句“?is to form good living habits” 4.The underlined w ord “alterna te” in this passage is closest in meaning to ________. A. arrange by turns C. make up for B. cause to take place D. keep away from
【浙江省 2014 高考英语模拟冲刺卷】 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将 该选项标号涂黑。 When I heard the piano, I walked to Mrs. Windsor’s house and waited outside as I always did. That meant she was working with another student, and I was not supposed to bother them by ringing the bell. I stood against the wall and daydreamed what I’d rather be doing. “Almost anything”, I sighed dejectedly. I had been tutored enough to read, understand, and even write some musical compositions, but I just didn’t have a gift for it. It didn’t come to me naturally. I thought back to happier times when I was writing stories and acting them out with my friends, cutting up old clothes to make dresses that performers wear in plays, and building scenery out of old things we found. But Mrs. Windsor had offered to give me the lessons for free, so I felt my duty to try. The door opened and Wendy Barton came out. I walked in, sat down on the piano bench and began to sort through my sheet music. “Hello,” I heard a voice behind me say softly. I turned around to see a little girl standing behind me, eating an apple. But before I could make any response, Mrs. Windsor walked into the room in her usual urgent manner and announced, “Jennifer, this is my niece, Pasha. Pasha, this is Jennifer. Pasha will be giving you your lesson today.
I’m up to my ears in something else!” she then exited to the kitchen. Pasha set her apple down on the side table and slid beside me on the piano bench. “What piece do you like best?” she asked. “What do you mean?” I asked. “They’re all the same to me. I don’t know. “You mean you don’t have a favorite?” “No, not really.” Pasha looked at me, rather puzzled, then opened my sheet music to the beginning page and asked me to play. I arranged my fingers on the keys and studied the notes on the page for a moment. Then I frowned and concentrated to make the notes on the page match the finger movements. I have to admit I was a rather mechanical pianist. After about a page or two, Pasha gently put her hand on top of mine as if to calm my fingers. There was a long pause. “What are you hearing in the music?” I looked at her rather strangely and admitted I didn’t know what she meant. “Like a story. What story is being playing out within the music?” “I guess I’ve never thought about it before. I don’t know.” “Here, let me try and you listen,” Pasha advised. She closed her eyes and took a deep breath, letting her fingers dance lightly over the keys. Then, she began to play. “See, it begins here beside some kind of river. Hear the water flowing beside you?” Her fingers rose and fell gently on the keys. “Now the princess appears and she’s picking flowers from the water’s edge.” A carefree, happy piece of music filled the air in time to Pasha’s dancing fingers. “Oh, but she slips!” The music changed. “And our princess is being carried off by the fast-flowing stream. Quickly, the princess’s horse sees her plight (困境),” Pasha continued, and races to the river’s edge where he swims out to let her catch hold of him. They make it to the bank and she hugs her faithful horse and swears she will never again wear princess skirts that weigh her down. She will only wear jeans and T-shirt from now on.” Pasha finished with a big smile and then looked at me. “Aren’t you the girl who tells the stories?” she asked. “I guess. I do tell a lot of stories.”
“Oh, yes! All the kids talk about them. I’ve heard about you. Well, all you have to do is learn to hear the stories in the music. That’s all there is to it.” “I’ve never thought it that way.” “Let’s try another one, shall we?” Pasha smiled and together we played that afternoon, finding the stories in the music and learning that sometimes it takes a friend to pull you out of the river onto dry land again. 55. The underlined word “dejectedly” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _______. A. nervously B. desperately C. impatiently D. unhappily
56. Jennifer got lost in thought when she ________. A. played the piano with Pasha for the first time B. listened to Pasha tell her story about the princess C. remembered happier times of writing stories and acting them out D. discovered that Mrs. Windsor’s niece would be giving the piano lesson 57. By describing herself as a mechanical pianist, the author showed ______. A. she could remember the notes in a short time B. she was playing the piano without thinking C. Pasha was showing off her skills D. it had been a long time since she played last time 58. Which of the following can best describe Pasha? A. Creative B. Naughty C. Humorous D. Brave
59. Which of the following is the best title for the text? A. Never Give up C. Why I Hated Playing the Piano B. A Piano Lesson D. A Friend for Ever
60. This text would be probably found in ______. A. a collection of stories about friendship and learning B. a book of daily records about famous young musicians C. a magazine series about the challenges of overcoming fears D. a series of newspaper articles about musical instruments 55．D 根据上下文可知。 56. C 第一段 I thought back to happier times when I was writing stories and acting them
out with my friends,---可知。 57. B 第九段 I arranged my fingers on the keys and studied the notes on the page for a moment. Then I frowned and concentrated to make the notes on the page match the finger movements. I have to admit I was a rather mechanical pianist. 可知。 58. A 第十五段 Her fingers rose and fell gently on the keys. ----可知。 59. B 通读全文可知。 60. A 通读全文可知。
阅读理解。 The baby monkey is much more developed at birth than the human baby. Almost from the moment it is born, the baby monkey can move around and hold tightly to its mother. During the first few days of its life the baby will approach and hold onto almost any large, warm, and soft object in its environment, particularly if that object also gives it milk. After a week or so, however, the baby monkey begins to avoid newcomers and focuses its attentions on “mother”—the real mother or the mother－substitute (母亲替代物). During the first two weeks of its life warmth is perhaps the most important psychological (心理的) thing that a monkey mother has to give to its baby. The Harlows, a couple who are both psychologists, discovered this fact by offering baby monkeys a choice of two types of mother－substitutes—one covered with cloth and one made of bare wire. If the two artificial mothers were both the same temperature, the little monkeys always preferred the cloth mother. However, if the wire model was heated, while the cloth model was cool, for the first two weeks after birth the baby monkeys picked the warm wire mother－substitutes as their favorites. Thereafter they switched and spent most of their time on the more comfortable cloth mother. Why is cloth preferable to bare wire? Something that the Harlows called contact(接 触) comfort seems to be the answer, and a most powerful influence it is. Baby monkeys spend much of their time rubbing against their mothers' skins, putting themselves in as close contact with the parent as they can. Whenever the young animal is frightened, disturbed, or annoyed, it typically rushes to its mother and rubs itself against her
body. Wire doesn't “rub” as well as does soft cloth. Prolonged (长时间的) “contact comfort” with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and is much more rewarding to them than is either warmth or milk. According to the Harlows, the basic quality of a baby's love for its mother is trust. If the baby is put into an unfamiliar playroom without its mother, the baby ignores the toys no matter how interesting they might be. It screams in terror and curls up into a furry little ball. If its cloth mother is now introduced into the playroom, the baby rushes to it and holds onto it for dear life. After a few minutes of contact comfort, it obviously begins to feel more secure. It then climbs down from the mother－substitute and begins to explore the toys, but often rushes back for a deep embrace (拥抱) as if to make sure that its mother is still there and that all is well. Bit by bit its fears of the new environment are gone and it spends more and more time playing with the toys and less and less time holding onto its “mother”. 50．Psychologically, what does the baby monkey desire most during the first two weeks of its life? A. Warmth. C. Contact. B. Milk. D. Trust.
51．After the first two weeks of their life, baby monkeys prefer the cloth mother to the wire mother because the former is ________. A. larger in size B. closer to them C. less frightening and less disturbing D. more comfortable to rub against 52．What does the baby monkey probably gain from prolonged “contact comfort”？ A. Attention. C. Confidence. B. Softness. D. Interest.
53．It can be inferred that when the baby monkey feels secure, ________. A. it frequently rushes back for a deep embrace when exploring the toys B. it spends more time screaming to get rewards C. it is less attracted to the toys though they are interesting
D. it cares less about whether its mother is still around 54．The main purpose of the passage is to ________. A. give the reasons for the experiment B. present the findings of the experiment C. introduce the method of the experiment D. describe the process of the experiment 【要点综述】 这是一篇说明文。作者主要向读者阐述了一个关于幼猴的实验发现。 50．A 考查细节理解。从文章第一段“During the first few days of its life?onto almost any large, warm, and soft object?”可知，幼猴刚出生最需要的是温暖，所以选 A 项。 51 ． D 考查推理判断。从第三段“Why is cloth preferable to bare wire ？?Baby
monkeys spent much of their time rubbing against their mothers' skins?”推知，幼 猴选择“布妈妈”，而不是“线妈妈”的原因在于相对于“线妈妈”而言，“布妈妈”皮肤 接触起来更舒服，可能也更暖和，故选 D 项。 52．C 考查细节理解。从第三段“Prolonged (长时间的)‘contact comfort’ with a cloth mother appears to give the babies confidence and ?”可知，长时间地与“布妈 妈”接触，增加了幼猴的自信心，因此 C 项是最佳答案。 53 ． D 考查推理判断。从最后一段“If its cloth mother is now introduced?it
obviously begins to feel more secure.It then climbs down from?and less and less time holding onto its ‘mother’．”推知，当幼猴看到“布妈妈”后，它会觉得有安全感，从 而在行为上会放松起来，从而越来越喜欢玩玩具，而减少与“母亲”接触的时间，所以 D 项 正确。 54．B 考查写作意图。文章主要介绍了一个关于幼猴的实验结果，因此作者在文章中
是要呈现这个结果给读者，所以 B 项为最佳答案。
【2014 高考英语河南省内黄一中一模】 共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 10 分） 根据短文内容，从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。
Do you know what a big dream is?
Or, is a big dream something that
provides only entertainment? Children dream big dreams, but there are three barriers to realizing dreams. They often kill them before they ever have a chance to grow. The Self Immediately following the birth of a big dream, a negative self-talk takes over and gives all the reasons why it cannot happen. This inside voice is the ego （自我） . It’s there for protecting and should be listened to. 72 Most people
are influenced by the inside voice. That’s why only a handful of people make their dream come true. 73 Family and friends are a lot like the ego. They want to protect those they love, so they will often list all the reasons why the big dreams won’t come true. Sometimes, family and friends destroy dreams of those they love most, out of their own fear of being left behind. The World If one gets past the first two barriers, one has to face the world. 74 In the past, big dreamers were locked up and sometimes even killed when they
were shown to the world. Fortunately, in most of the world today, big dreamers just get laughed at. The way to realize a big dream is with confidence and action. When children have confidence and then take action, they will be ready to accept any failure. The truth is that every great dreamer whose dreams have never seen the light of success knows failure well. 75
A. Family and Friends B. How Big Dreams Die C. Does a big dream show one’s future ? D. They simply fail until they succeed. E. Sometimes it is right, but more often it is wrong F. It is the last and the most terrible barrier. G. And their big dream is to be a rock star or a famous artist. 【参考答案】71—75、CEAFD
【2014 高考英语四川省成都市一模试题】 根据对话内容，从对话后的选项中选出能填如空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。 （共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 10 分） Li Hua, who is planning to travel with his parents, is now calling Hyatt Travel Agency in Xi’an. (A: Assistant B: Li Hua)
A: Hello, this is Hyatt Travel Agency. May I help you? L: Yes. This is Li Hua. I’ll have a short holiday, and I’m thinking about traveling abroad with my parents. 51
A: Of course. May I ask how long your holiday will be? L: About a week. A: OK. 52
L: I`d love to go to Europe. A: 53 We have a special offer for European tours. 54
A: Sure. For family tours, we have five European cities on the list, and we’ll see the Big Ben in London, the Eiffel Tower in Paris and other places of interest. L: 55 I’ll talk about this with my parents and call you back. Thank you.
A. You are welcome. B. You are very lucky. C. What do you have in mind? D. Can you give me some advice? E. That’s just what I am thinking of. F. Can I have some extra information? G. I hope you’ll have a good journey there.
【参考答案】补全对话 51—55、D C B F E