1、在句中作状语用的从句叫状语从句。 2、状语从句可修饰谓语，非谓语动词、定语、状语或整 个句子。 3、引导状语从句的一般为连词，也可有词组。 4、状语从句可以在句首，也可在句中或句末。 5 、状语从句按其用途可有时间、地点、原因、目的、 结果、让步、方式、比较等九种。 6、状语从句中的将来时，一般不用将来时。（一般将来 时用一般现在时、将来完成时用现在完成时、过去将来时 用一般过去时、过去将来完成时用过去完成时表示。 )
1、时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句的连词有：when, before, after, as soon as, as, while, hardly had…when, scarcely had …when, no sooner had … than, till / until, since, the moment, by the time 等，例如： Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us. I got in touch with him immediately I received his letter. My sister came directly she got my message. Every time I catch a cold, I have pain in my back. △ 如果把no sooner, hardly, scarcely, barely置于句首，它所连 带的这部分就要倒装，如： No sooner had she heard the news than she fainted. (She had no sooner heard the news than she fainted.)
引导地点状语从句的连词有 where, wherever (no matter where) 等，例如： Where I live there are plenty of trees. 我住的地方树很多。 Wherever I am I will be thinking of you. 不管我在哪里我都会 想到你。 Bamboo grows well where it is warm and wet. You may go wherever you like. 有时，- where构成的复合词也可以引导地点状语从句，如： Everywhere they went, they were kindly received / warmly welcomed. We’ll go anywhere the Party directs us.
3、原因状语从句 (1)引导原因状语从句的连词有 because, since, as , now that (2) because, since, as, for 用法比较： ㈠、because: 语气最强，回答why时用because，所表示的是直 接理由，因果关系不能同so连用。 Why are you late? Because there is a traffic jam. ㈡、 since: “既然…..” 表对方已知的事实或理由，常放在句首。 Since you have got enough money with you now, you can come and buy it next time. ㈢、as: “由于….” 语气较弱，较口语化，表明显的原因或已知的 事实，常放在句首。 As he had been ready for the worst, he was not disappointed at the result. ㈣、for 是一个等立连词，连接的是两个并列的分句，其他三个引 导的是状语从句；for不能放在句首。 It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.
4、条件状语从句 引导条件状语从句的连词有： if, unless, (if not) , on condition that , as long as。
Come tomorrow, and I will tell you.
Persevere and you will succeed.
Give him an inch and he’ll take a mile. (= If you give him an inch, he’ll take a mile. ) 但：当表示否定的条件时，可用连词or 或otherwise， 如： Make up your mind, or you’ll miss the chance.
Start at once, or / otherwise you’ll miss the train. (= If you don’t start at once, …) (= Unless you start at once, you’ll miss the train.)
5、目的、结果状语从句 （1）引导目的状语从句的连词有so that, in order that; 引导结果状语从句的连词有so….that, such….that （2）….so that…., in order that…..引导目的状语从句时，从句中 常有can, could, may, might, would （3）so + 形容词/副词/分词 + that引导结果状语从句 such + (形容词) + 名词 + that引导结果状语从句 He worked so hard that he made great progress. The book is so interesting that I have read it twice. （4）such + a/an +形容词+单数可数名词+ that引导结果状语从句 so +形容词+ a/ an +单数可数名词+ that引导结果状语从句 注意：只有单数可数名词才有这两种表达方式。 It’s such a fine day that we all want to go outing. = It’s so fine a day that we all want to go outing.
（5）如果修饰名词的形容词为many, few, much, little时，前面则 用so，例如： so many +名词+ that ； so few +名词+ that so much +名词+ that ； so little +名词+ that 比较： so many / few flowers → such nice flowers so much / little money → such rapid progress so many people → such a lot of people There were so many people in the bus that I could hardly move. She put so much butter and sugar in the cake that I didn’t dare to eat too much.
6、让步状语从句 （ 1 ）引导让步状语从句的连词有： though/although, even if/ even though, no matter who/ what/ when / where/ which / how ( whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, however) （2）whoever, whatever, whichever还可引导名词从句。 而no matter who/ what/ which 只能引导让步状语从句 He didn’t want to be disturbed, no matter who wanted to see him. = He didn’t want to be disturbed, whoever wanted to see him. I’ll give the books to whoever needs them.
由as, that, though引导的特殊让步状语从句结构：
步从句。但as一般不置于句首，而将从句中的表语或状语置于句首。 ① 表语的倒装： Tired as he was, he still went on with his work.
Tall as / though he was, he couldn’t reach the top shelf.
② 状语的倒装：（这时不可在状语之前加very, much等修饰语） Much as I admire him as a writer, I do not like him as a man. Much as he likes the bike, he doesn’t want to buy it. ③ 谓语动词的倒装： Try as he might, he didn’t pass the exam. Hate him as we may, we must admit his greatness.
7、方式状语从句 1、方式状语从句通常由 as, as if, as though 来引导，如： You must do the exercises as I show you.
Please do exactly as your doctor says.
He acted as / though nothing had happened. He walked as if he was / were drunk.
Mary was behaving as though she hadn’t grown up.
2、在非正式文体或口语中，也可用 the way (that) (= as = in the way in which), how, like等来引导，如：
Jean doesn’t do it the way I do.
She is doing her work the way I like it done. You can do the job how you like.
The landlord was watching him like (= just as) a cat watches a mouse.
Do you make bread like you make cakes?
8、比较状语从句 （1）比较状语从句主要用在形容词、副词的原级、比较级、最高 级的句子中。 原级： as …as … not so / as …as 比较级: 比较级+ than … 最高级： 最高级+in / of / among … （2） no more than 和 not more than no more than --- only 只不过，仅仅(嫌少的含义) not more than ---less than 不多于，不到（说明客观事实） His education added up to no more than one year. (only one year,太短了，有感情色彩) They finished the project in not more than one year. (less than one year, 不到一年，只说明客观事实，没有感情色彩) （3）两者中 “较….的一个用the + 比较级 The younger of the twin sisters is more consideration
1、as, when, while 的用法与区别： when: ①引导状语从句，表示主句、从句的动作或状态同时、之 前、之后发生。 When they arrived, it was already midnight ②从句和主句的动作同时发生，可用as，但不可用 while， 因为arrived是非延续的动词 When the clock struck eleven, all the lights went out. 从句的动作在主句之前发生。只能用when。 When he ran to the stop, the bus had gone. 从句动作在主句动作之后发生，只可用when。
③、when = and then,作并列连词，连接两个分句,when前通常有逗 号。意为“这时…. 就在这时….“ I was wandering in the street, when suddenly I caught sight of one of my old friends.
①、while意思是during the whole of the time that,指在一段时间 里，所引导的从句中的动词是延续性的，可译为“在 … . 期间， 在….之时” She visited a lot of places while she stayed in U.S. He felt asleep while he was watching TV. ②、 while 可用作并列连词，连接两个分句，表“对比，不同”。 中文常备翻译为“而….” My son likes to watch boxing games while I would rather listen to music.
She fell of the bus as she got down.
He whistled as he rode on.
As time went on, he became less active. ③as表 “由于….” 引导原因状语从句 I’m not going out as I have a lot to do. ④、as用于表“虽然”的倒装句中。 Young as she is, she is already a professor. Child as he is, he knows a lot.
2、since的用法： since表从过去某一时间或动作、事情起到目前为止， “自….以 来” ①、引导状语从句时，主句用现在完成时（或现在完成 进行时）时，从句中用一般过去时。 I’ve been living here since I came to Beijing.
②、常用句型： it is (has been)…..+ since +一般过去时
It is five years since I began to learn English.
3、until与till的用法与区别： ①、until/ till 修饰的谓语动词为延续性动词。在句首时多用until.
Let’s wait till / until the rain stops
Until then, I knew nothing at all about it. ②、主句谓语动词为非延续性动词时，应用 not….until….句型 She didn’t come back until this morning. ③、not….until…的倒装句和强调句。 He didn’t stop until he had finished all his work→ 倒装句: Not until he had finished all his work did he stop.
强调句: It was not until he had finished all his work that he