外研版高中英语选修6-Module5-Grammar_图文

外研版 高二年级(选修6) Module 5

Grammar

Subjunctive

虚拟语气的概念 语气:语气是一种动词形 式,表示说话人的意图或 态度。英语中有陈述语气, 祈使语气和虚拟语气三种 语气。

虚拟语气是用来表示说话人所说的话
不是一个事实,而是一种假设、猜测、 怀疑等(在条件从句中);二是表示说 话人的主观愿望、要求、命令、建议 等 (在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语 从句中)。

一. 虚拟语气在条件句中的运用
从句中谓语的构成 与现在 动词的过去式(be 情况相 的过去式一般用 were) 反 与过去 had + 过去分词 情况相 反 与将来 动词的过去式 情况相 should+动词原形 were to+动词原形 反 情 况 主句中谓语的构成 Would/should/ could/might +动词原形 Would /should/ could/might +have +过去分词 Would/should/ could/might +动词原形

1. 与现在事实相反: 表示与现在事实相反的 条件和结果。 1).If I won the lottery, I would buy an expensive car. 2). If I had a lot of money now, I would travel around the world. 3). If it were fine now, I would go shopping. 4). If everyone in the country knew first aid, many lives would be saved . 5). If the peasants could farm the land themselves, food production would be much higher.

2. 与过去事实相反: 表示与过去事实相反的 条件和结果。 1). If I had had time last night, I would have gone to see the film with you . 2). If he had driven more carefully, he would not have had the car accident yesterday. 3). If I had learnt how to swim, I would not have been trapped in this island. 4). If the hurricane had happened during the day time, there would have been many more deaths.

3. 与将来事实可能相反: 表示与将来事实可 能相反的条件和结果。 1). If I saw him tomorrow, I should tell him.

2). If I were to do it, I would do it in a different way. 3). If it should be necessary, I could come at six.

注意
1) 含有虚拟语气的条件状语从句中,如 有had,should,were这三个词,在 正式或书面语言中可将if省略,再将句 子的主语和谓语动词实行部分倒装。

1). Had they time (= If they had time), they would certainly come and help us. 2). Should it be fine (= If it should be fine),
we would go for an outing.

3). Were I you (=If I were you), I would go.

2)有时候,条件从句表示的动作和主
句表示的动作,发生的时间不一致, 这时,动词的形式要根据表示的时间 来调整。这种句子可以称为错综复杂

条件句

1). If it had rained last night, (过去)

I would be very cold today.(现在)
2). If I had taken your advice, (过去) I should have no trouble with the work now.(现在)

3)有时候,假设的情况不以条件从句表 示,而是通过一个介词短语来表示,有 时可以通过上下文或其他方式表示。这

种句子称为含蓄条件句。

1). We could have done better under more favourite conditions.

2). He would have given you more help, but he has been so busy. 3). Such mistakes could have been avoided. (if we had been more careful)

4). But for your help, we couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time.

5). Without air, there would be no living
things. 6). With your help we could have done better. 7). If only I were a bird!

二. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用
1. 在动词 suggest, order, demand, propose, request, insist, require, desire等后的宾语从句中, 用虚拟语气 (即should + 动词原形)来表示愿望, 建议, 命令,请求等。

常见动词:

一个坚持:insist(坚持要求)
两个命令:order, command

三个建议:advise, suggest, propose
五个要求:demand , require, request, desire, ask

这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟 语气用法。即从句中的动词 使用should + 动词原形,或者将should省略。

1). I suggest that we (should) set off at once. 2). They requested that we (should) send a delegation to their country. 3). The doctor suggested that she (should) not smoke. 4). He insisted that she (should) go first.

我们建议Tom去休息一下。 他坚决要求我到场。 国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。
We suggested that Tom (should) have a rest. He insisted that I (should) be present.

The king ordered that the prisoners (should) be
killed the next day.

They requested that we (should) send them to
work there.

2.wish (that) + subject + a past tense

(与现在事实相反)
1). I wish I were as strong as you.

2). I wish every day were my birthday.
3). I wish you were a little taller.

wish (that) + subject + past perfect
(与过去事实相反) 1). I wish you had told me earlier. 2). I wish I had never met him. 3). I wish / wished I hadn’t eaten so much watermelon. 4). The party was awful, I wish I had never gone to it.

wish (that) +subject + would
将来不大可能实现的愿望
1). I wish it would rain tomorrow. 2). I wish you would succeed this time. 3). I wish you could fly back to me.

三. 虚拟语气在其他名词性从句中的运用 It is desired that It is suggested that It is required that It is demanded that It was ordered that It was proposed that It is important/essential/ necessary…that It is a pity/ a shame/strange …that

+ … should+ …

1). It is demanded that energy should be saved.

2). It is important that he should study English before going abroad. 3). It is a great pity that he should be always careless.

在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名称后的表语从句,同位语从句中 Our suggestion is that you (should) be the first to go.
My advice is that we (should) send for Doctor Li Do you know the order that you (should) keep watch?

注 It is (high) time that you were to bed.
I would rather you came to see me

tomorrow.

would rather that --

现在: 过去时were / did 过去:过去完成时had done 未来: 过去时were / did

I would rather it were winter now. 现在 ( ) I would rather you had gone, too.过去 ( ) Don’t come. I would rather you came 未来 tomorrow. ( )

It’s (about/high) time +that --

It’s high time that you went.

过去时 should +V.

你该走了。
It’s high time that you should go.

我们该上课了。
It’s time that we had a class. It’s time that we should have a class.

四. 虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用
以as if,as though引起的状语从句, 其谓语形式与wish后的宾语从句相同。

现在: 过去时
as if /though + 从句

过去: 过去完成时

She loves the baby as if it were her own son. It seems as if it were spring.

注意:从句情况如果很有可能发生,也可 用陈述语气

1). It seems as if it were spring already.

2). He talks as if he were Napolean
3). It looks as if it might rain.

4). He talks as if he had been to the moon.
5). They are talking as if they had been

friends for years.
6). He talks as if he would go to the moon.

7). Take care in case you should catch cold.

Correct the wrong sentences.
1. If the weather was nice yesterday, we would have gone to the zoo. had been 2. He were you, he would go home at once. Were he you/If he were you 3. I should have come here early, but I had been busy. was

GRAMMAR Subjunctive [s?b`d???ktiv] 虚拟语气。 1. Look at the sentences from the listening passage. Choose the correct answers. page62 A. If it was easy, I’d be a rich man by now. B. If didn’t believe that, I’d be in a different job. C. If that happened, it would be terrible. D. If we were able to do that, it would be wonderful.

1 Sentences A and B refer to ____. (a)an imaginary situation in the present or future (b) a real situation in the present or future 2 Sentences C and D refer to _____. (a) a situation that will probably happen (b) a situation that may possibly happen. 3 In the if part of the sentence, we use______. (a) the past tense (b) the present tense 4 In Sentence A, I’d means _______. (a) I had (b) I would

3.Complete the sentences. Put the verbs into the correct form. Page 62

1. cloned would feel 2. didn’t allow would be 3. met would run away 4. were / was would be 5. lived were would be

4. Complete the passage. Page 63
(1)for (2)of (3)had (4)would (5)why (6)would (7)met/ saw (8)would (9)more (10)if (11)go / fly/ travel (12)were (13)would (14)but (15)could

I. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。
1. I wish you would _________ stay (stay) here a

little longer next time.
2. I wish my father _____ were (be) at home now, for no one can help me work out the problem. 3. I’d rather you _____ went (go) at once.

4. The emergency required that all the
(should) be completed (complete) tasks ___________________

at least two days ahead of time.
5. His suggestion is that he

_____________ (should) be sent (send) to Tibet.
6. I wish that I _____________ hadn’t wasted (not

waste) so much time last term.

II. 根据括号内所给汉语提示完成下列句子, 每空一词。 1. I wish I ____ knew___ the ______ answer__ to __ the_______ question (知道这个问题的答案). 2. They talked as if they ____ had _____ been ______ friends __ for_____ years (是多年的朋友). 3. His silence suggested that he ______ agreed __ ________ (赞同我的决定). to ___ my decision

7. The officer ordered that the guns _______________ (should) be fired (fire). 8. I’d rather you hadn’t ___________ told (not tell) him the news that day. went (go) to fetch my 9. It’s time that I _____ daughter from the kindergarten. 10. He talks about New York as if he __________ had been (be) there before.

4. It is time that we did ___ something ________ __ to
____ _______ (做些什么制止污染). stop pollution

5. She advised that he ______ _____ should try
___ ____ (尽他最大的努力) to his best improve the working conditions of his factory.


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