在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句， 它的作用相当于一个形容词。 定语从句通常位于它所修饰的名词或代词之后，这种 名词或代词叫做先行词，引导定语从句的词为关系 代词或关系副词。 关系代词在定语从句中可作主语、宾语和定语；关系 副词在定语从句中只作状语。
? 1、先行词 注意被定语从句所修饰的先行词的 特点，即是人还是物，以及将要在定语从句中 所充当的成分。
– 如： The student who answered the question was my friend. (先行词是student在定语从句中充当主语) The girl you met just now is my sister. (先行词是girl 在定语从句中作宾语)
? 引导定语从句的关系代词、关系副词,代替先行词在定语 从句中充当成分。 ? 在定语从句中能作主语的关系代词有who,that,which其中 who用于指人，which用于指物，that既可指人也可指物。
? An architect is a person who /that design houses and buildings.
The supermarket which/that was opened last week is a very modern one.
? 在定语从句中能作宾语的关系代词有 who,whom,which,that其中who, whom用于指人 which用于指物that既可指人也可指物。
– 如: The suit which/that the tailor made for me doesn?t fit me. The man whom/that I beat in the tennis game was my father.
在定语从句中能作定语的关系代词有whose或 the +名词+of+which
– 如: He lives in the room whose door is green. =He lives in the room the door of which is green. The girl whose father is a teacher studies very well. =The girl the father of whom is a teacher studies very well.
在定语从句中作方式状语的关 系 副 词 常 被 省 略 如 :
? This is the way (how) he worked out the problem.
n 介词如果在定语从句的句 首时,作宾语的关系代词只能用 whom, which且不可省略
如: The man with whom you shook hands just now is the head of our department. =The man whom you shook hands with just now is the head of our department. This is the book to which I referred in my talk. =This is the book (which) I referred to in my talk.
? n 非限制性定语从句和先行词关系不 紧密用逗号和主句分开,另译作一句,作为 一种补充说明即使去掉从句，主句的意 思仍然清楚而限制性定语从句和先行词 关系紧密从句不能去掉,如果去掉意思就 不清楚且主句和从句之间无逗号一般译 在先行词前面。
? n 除that不可以引导非限制性定语从句外其 他关系代词和关系副词均可引导非限制性定语 从句。
– All the books，which have pictures have been sent to them. He has a brother who is a doctor.他有一个当医生的 兄弟。（也许不止一个兄弟） He has a brother ,who is a doctor.他有个兄弟，他是 一个医生。
? n which在所引导的非限制性定语从句，有 时可以修饰整个主句即代替主句的意义。
– The examination has been put off，which is what we want.考试被推迟了，这正是我们希望的。 – Mary was late again ,which made her teacher angry. 玛丽又迟到了，这使她的老师非常生气。
– （1）引导非限制性定语从句时 Bamboo is hollow，which makes it very light （2）当关系代词前有介词时 The room in which my family live used to be a garage （3）当先行词本身为that时 ：That which you told him about is what we want to know你告诉他的正是 我们想知道的
? n 只用that不用which的情况： （1）先行词有序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 如:The first place that we visited was the Great Wall. This is the best film that has ever been made. （2）先行词前有only,few,little,right,any,all, one等修饰时 The only furniture (that) he had in the room was a chair and a small desk. There is little time that we can use. (3) 先行词是不定代词some, all, anything,little,much,something,everything,noth ing,none等时 That is all (that) I want to say. Is there anything (that) I can do for you?
? (4) 先行词为人和物的名词词组 They talked about persons and things that they remembered in the school. (5) 主句前who, whom有时 Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there? (6) 在there be 或there live结构中先行词指物 There is a book on the desk that I am very interested in.
– Is this the book that you borrowed in the library? (8)在 way(指方法)后面常用that代替how或 in which结构 – That was the way (that) he did it. (9) time(表示次数)前有序数词修饰That was the last time that I met her.
? (10)习惯用法中that 可以用作关系副词代替(in, .on, for) which及 when where, why, 而且that可 省略 The way that (in which) you look at problem is wrong. I never forget the day (when, that, on which) I went to school 20years ago. Do you know anywhere (that, where) I can get a drink? I ?d like to know the reason (that, why, for which) you won?t come.
? (11)当先行词前有the same修饰时或当先 行词和关系代词指同一人或物时 This is the same man that /who I told you about. ? This is the book that I bought yesterday.
? 只用who的情况。 (1)先行词为those指人 Those who want to go there raise your hands. (2)there be (live)结构中先行词指人 There is a young man outside who asks for you. There lived a king who was kind to his people. (3)先行词为指人的不定代词one,anyone,no one, all, nobody, any body, none等 Anyone who broke the window would be punished. We should learn from the one who benefits us.
? n 选用关系副词不能光看先行词是否 是表示时间，地点和原因的名词，而必 须分析从句谓语动词与先行词之间的逻 辑关系。如果关系词在从句中作主语或 宾语则他仍须用关系代词which或that
? 如： We will never forget the day, which we spent together. I like to take my vacation in the mountain, which is quiet and beautiful. That is the reason, which he gave us for his action.
? n as 引导限制性定语从句时,先行词常 用such和same修饰,as在从句中不省略如:
– He used such expressions as he could find n the tests. They stayed for the night in the same room as they had once rented.
? As 引导非限制性定语从句时,as代表整个主句 的意义,定语从句在主句中的位置比较灵活。 ? 如： He is a teacher，as is clear from his manner. Taiwan, as is known to everyone, is a part of China.
? n 定语从句修饰of前面的词还是of后面的词, 要看of前面的词是否有定冠词修饰。 ? 如: Tom is one of the boys who were late this morning. (汤姆是所有早上迟到的男孩中的一 员) Tom is the only one of the boys who was late this morning. ( 汤姆是所有男孩中早上迟到的 唯一个)
– 1. There are 102 elements(化学元素) found in nature,_________are metals 2. The house ______roof was damaged has now been repaired. 3. I have never been to Rome but that?s the city I?d most like to visit.
– 4.The reason _______I have not done my homework is there are too many difficult points.
– 5. “Gone are the days ________I was young,” the seventy-year-old man said. 6. This is the place ______he lived in his childhood.
– 7. The pen_________he writes id Hero 60. 8. Mrs. Lee will move into her new house next Monday, _______it will be completely furnished. – 9. This is the very bus__we?ll go to the theater. 10.The best play _______Shakespeare wrote is probably King Lear, but some people don?t think so. 11. He is the only one of the teachers______Spanish in our school. 12. King Henry received a letter from Mr. Lirpa; _______announced (宣布)______he had finally solved the secret of light.
– 13. I bout a new book, ______is very beautiful. 14. I have a book, ______very interesting. 15. Only a twenty-minute walk from his village is a little valley set among he hills, ______is one of the quietest places in the world. 16. Those ______are willing to attend the party, sign here. – 17. There are many places ______we can visit in China. 18.He was looking pleasantly at the children and parcels _______filled his bus. 19.Which are the books _______you bought for me?
20. The village is no longer the one _______was 5 years ago. 21. Who is that girl _____is standing by the window? 22. Do you know Mr. Smith ______story is very moving? 23. There is a room, _______window faces the river. 24.There is a room, the window_______faces the river. 25.Such books _______you bought are useful. 26.The school is just the same _______it was 10 years ago.
– 27. I want to use the same tool _____you used just now. 28. He didn?t pass the exam, _______we had expected. 29.There is lots of air in loose snow, ______can keep the cold out. 30._______is known, the earth is round, not flat. 31.I don?t like the way ______he talks. 32. This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.
– 33.It is the museum _______we visited last year. 34.We expressed to them our wish _____the same as theirs. 35.He is the only one of the students_____has got very good marks in the match. 36. He is one of the students ______have got good marks in the match. 37. Is this the place______we visited last year? 38. Is this place __________we visited last year?
39. He stood at the window; __________he could see what was happening. 40. _______Is known to everybody, the noon travels around the earth once every month. 41.After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town_______he grew up as a child. 42.He made another wonderful discovery, ______ I think is of great importance to science. 43. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., _______many people have gone home.
44.She has bought the same sort of washing machine_______you have. 45.There is nothing in the world______can frighten her. 46.He paid the boy 10 dollars for washing 10 windows, most of ____hadn?t been cleaned for at least a year. 47.Alice received an invitation from her boss, _____came as a surprise. 48.She likes to use words______is clear to him. 49. I shall never forget those days______I lives in the country with the farmers_____ has a great effect in my life.
– 50. Mr. Smith is one of the foreign experts who ___ working in our city. 51. _______________, Computer are widely used. 52. He has two sons, -________have turned engineers. 53.When people talk about the cities of Britain, the first______comes to my mind is London. 54.His head soon appeared out of a window, _______he could see an elephant in the distance.
– 55.We had a tiring meeting _______I kept talking asleep. 56Take care of the boy and the dog -_______are crossing the road. 57. How lovely the baby is _____is sleeping in its mother?s arms. 58.He arrives in Washington in 1946, ________some time later, he become a writer. 59.By using both ears one can tell the direction _______a sound comes. 60. On the bus I saw a student_____I thought was my brother. 61. He told us ______he had done.
– 62.She spent the whole evening talking about the things and persons_______none of us have heard of. 63.He makes good use of the time_____he can spare. 64. The factory ______his mother works is in the east of the city.