Unit 4

the science of the stars

Period 1

How Life Began on the Earth


Chemistry Biology Geology Mathematics Medicine Biochemistry Geophysics


Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe and the heaven bodies (such as the sun, the moon, and stars), gas, and dust within it.


The Big Bang

The Solar system

? eight planets ? many comets ? other objects




Water is the headspring of life.

A cloud of dust Combine into a solid ball

Explode…with fire & rock
(produce H2O, CO2,O2, N2, other gases)

Cool down


Life began Life developed

water appeared

dissolve harmful gases into …

The development of life

The development of life

→ a solid ball → presence of water → small plants grow on the water → shellfish & other fish shellfish & other fish plants begin to grow on dry appear → plants begin to grow on dry land → insects and amphibians appear land → retiles appear → dinosaurs appear retiles appear dinosaurs appear → mammals appear mammals appear
A cloud of dust

Good morning/afternoon, I am Dr…. I’m greatly honored to be here to give

you a speech about the development of
life. …

What problems have been

caused by humans to the earth?

How to protect the earth and

make it a better place to live on?

Design an activity on Earth Day

What the activity is about

? Why the activity is designed
? When and where to do the

? Who takes part in the activity ? What to be done in the activity ?…

1. Search the Internet for the information of the development of life. 2. Read and learn good words, phrases

or structures from Reading.

Period 2

Using Language
& Reading Task

the natural force that causes an object to move toward the centre of the earth.


Isaac Newton

Albert Einstein

Stephen Hawking

Main idea
1. I heard about how three men made mistakes when they tried to describe gravity. 2. I heard about how three men wanted to find out about the beginning of the universe. 3. I heard about how the idea of gravity has developed over a long period of time. 4. I heard about three scientists and their work.

Newton Dates 1642-1727 Everything is Idea affected by a force called gravity Other It was only about the info. earth.

Einstein 1879-1955 Gravity is connected to time and space

Hawking 1942-

“Black holes” “eat”

objects but also “spit” them out. It was about It was about things found in the universe. the universe called “black holes”.

A visit to the moon

The change of gravity
Leave the earth

Very strong Very heavy
In space

Floated weightlessly
On the moon

Very light The mass will be less

Last month I visited the moon with my friend. gravity Before we left, I was told the force of g_____ would change three times on our journey. Then we took heavy off. As we left the earth, I became very h_______. Gradually the weight l_______. When I was in lessened space, it d__________. We f_______ weightlessly in disappeared floated the cabin and I c_____ ___. When I was on the cheered up moon, I was surprised to find out even walking now that needs lots of practice n__ ____ gravity changed. frightening The returning of the earth was very f_________. We were amazed to watch fire b____ out on the break ____ outside of the ship.

A black hole

About the black About us hole
Circle of lights

About others
Light went out Computers stopped working Spaceship not move

Large stars Like a mouth
Pull us into its mouth

In shock and amazement

turn away
Feel sick
My mouth dry Close my eyes I was bumped

Jump and went faster
My watch slower Jumped again,increase its speed as fast as light,like a bird Computer began to work again

Spit objects out

and banged
able to look


1.Search for more about the black hole. 2.Read these two passages again to find out how to organize a story.

Listening task, talking, listening and writing

Why did Li Yanping have his first space walk? A. To collect data for his research on gravity. B. To test the function of the new spacesuit.
C. To make the Hubble telescope work again.

How to breathe

What to dress

What to eat

How to cool you

1.Oxygen can
2.Water system 4. Left engine 5.Right engine 6.Tool kit

3.Gravity boots

Please look at/ listen to… You need… Please pay attention to… You’d better… Make sure you… You must(n’t)…

Please check that…
Don’t forget to… Watch out for…

The manned


Shenzhou 5 & 6

Shenzhou 5

Shenzhou 6


Oct. 15, 2003

Oct. 12, 2005


Yang Liwei

Fei Junlong Nei Haisheng

How long

21 hours and 23 minutes

5 days


Mr. Renault

True OR False
1. Yang Liwei became an astronaut by chance. F 2. Nobody over 170cm can be an astronaut. F 3. Yang Liwei trained for 10 years to become a pilot. T 4. If Yang Liwei had problems in space, there were ways to save him. T 5. China is the third country to send people into space just like Russia and the USA. T 6. Yang Liwei thinks he was lucky to be China’s first man in space. T

Info. on Yang Liwei, the astronaut The exams he passed

Excellent degree and 10 years’ training Pilot for the air force of the PLA Smaller than 170 cm; less than 70 kg


Physical qualities Personal qualities

Calm, mature, hard-working

? What have you learnt from the great scientist? ? What qualities should a scientist have?

What should you do now in preparation for becoming an astronaut or scientist?

Brainstorming for writing
when where what

What will we meet on the moon? who



How to write an outline?

The first paragraph (introduction)

(main idea)
Body (your own ideas on the item)

Conclusion (summing up)

1. Search more information on Shenzhou 5 & 6. 2. Read and learn important words or phrases learnt in class.

Period 4


Subject clause

Can you find the following sentence in the reading passage? What it was to become was a mystery until the dust began to slowly combine into a ball moving around the sun.
In this sentence, a noun clause is used as the subject.

Please pick out three more sentences with subject clauses from the reading passage.

1. …because it was not clear whether the solid shape was to last or not.
2. What scientists think is that the earth was different because of …

3. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on …

Do you know where we come from? How did the universe begin? Read the passage and try to understand how Stephen Hawking solved the problems?

1. What has attracted Stephen Hawking all his life? What the universe is like has attracted him. 2. Does he think it simple to answer the questions? What’s his opinion? No. The answers have always well beyond our reach. 3. What have we discovered about the universe, past and present? Milky Way galaxy; billions of galaxies, in a universe that is infinite and expanding; big bang; black hole; a dark matter; a possible Big Crunch. 4. How can we have a complete picture of the universe?

Learning to understand what we see.

What 1. _____ the universe is like has attracted Stephen Hawking all his life. What 2. _____ is clear and simple about the universe has always seemed too difficult for us to answer. Why 3. _____ the universe exists the way it does is a major question to all those who have looked at stars like Hawking. What 4. _____ has developed over two thousand years of observation has to be greatly revised. where 5. _____ in the universe we live is not the centre, but one of the mine planets orbiting the sun, which is just one of millions of stars in our own Milky Way galaxy.

6. ______ we understand the universe is the time When when we human beings will have answered all the questions.
How 7. ______ we can have a complete picture of the universe depends on learning to understand what we see.

8. ______ Hawking wants to tell us in this text is that What we should study the universe, and understand it.

做主语用的名词性从句,因其在复合句中做主 语,又称主语从句,引导主语从句的有从属连 词that, whether, 连接代词who, what, which, 连接副词when, where, how, why等。


1)从属连词:that, whether等. that 引导主语从句只起引导作用,本身无实 际意义,在主语从句中不充当任何成分,但 不能省略。
That she left him cut him to the heart. That he will come is certain.

由whether及其他连词引导的主语从句 放在句首,句后都可。
Whether it will please them is not easy to say. Whether she’s coming or not doesn’t matter too much.

2)连接代词who ,what ,which, whatever, whichever, whoever
What seems easy to some people seems difficult to others. Which side will win is not clear.

3)连接副词when,where, how, why等。
Why he did it remains a mystery. When they will start is not known yet. How he became a great scientist is known to us all.

2.位置: 主语从句可以前置,也可以后置。 用it做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末, 常用下面几种句型。
1)It + be + 表语 +主语从句

表语:(名词, 形容词,过去分词)

It is a pity that we can’t go. It is no surprise that our team should have won the game. It is an honour that I was invited to attend the meeting. It is certain that she will do well in her exam. It is true that I told her everything. It is said that Mr. Green has arrived in Beijing. It is reported that China has sent another manmade earth satellite into orbit.

2)It+不及物动词或短语+主语从句 It seemed (happened, doesn’t matter, has turned out) that…
It happens that they were absent. It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.

It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not.
It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting.

3) It +及物动词(被动语态)+主语从句
It has been decided that the exhibition will not open on Sundays.

1)主语从句在句首时,必须由连接词引 导,不能省略这些连接词;但是如果用it 做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时, 从属连词that可以省略。

误:They should like each other is natural. 正:That they should like each other is natural. 正:It is natural that they should like each other.

2)如果主语从句放在句首,不能用if引 导,但是如果用it 做形式主语,而把主 语从句放在句末时,也可以用if引导.
误:If Mary really heard him is really doubtful. 正:It was doubtful if Mary really heard him.

1.I have always been honest and straightforward, and it doesn‘t matter ______that I’m talking to. A. who is it B. who it is C. it is who D. it is whom 2. It is pretty well understood ___ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A. that B. when C. what D. how

3. _____ made the school proud was______ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities. A. What; because B. What ; that
C. That ; what D. That ; because

4. ______ we will go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where 5. _______ that they can pass the written exam this time. A. That is hoped B. It is hoped C. It hopes D. That hopes

6. It was doubtful ____ Mary really heard him. A. that B. if C. whether D. what

Reading comprehension:
Put the following sentences into Chinese: 1. What it was to become was a mystery until the dust began to slowly combine into a ball moving around the sun.
随后它会变成什么曾经是一个谜,直到最后这团尘埃 开始慢慢地合成一个环绕太阳运转的球状物。

2. The problem was that the earth became violent because it was not clear whether the solid shape was to last or not.
问题是地球(开始)变得激烈动荡,不知道这个固体 形状是否会继续存在下去。

3. It allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases, which had become part of the earth’s atmosphere, into the oceans and seas.
它使得地球得以把曾经存在于大气层中的有害气体, 溶解在海洋里。

4. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved.
在未来的千百万年中,生命能否在地球上延续将取决 于这个问题能否得到解决。


Review the subjective clause.

Finish the exercise on the workbook.

Period 5

Language points

1. What it was to become was a mystery until the dust began to slowly combine into a ball moving around the sun.

1.What surprised everybody _________________ (使大家吃惊的是)is that he didn’t come to the meeting.
2. ________________(他所做的) added to our What he did difficulty.
_____ we can’t get seems better than ____ we have. A A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That;what _____ made the school proud was _____ more than 90% B of the students had been admitted to key universities. A.What;because B. What;that;C. That;what D.That;because

2.The problem was that the earth became violent because it was not clear whether the solid shape was to last or not.
问题是地球开始变得激烈动荡,不知道这个固体形状是否会继 续下去。

n. 固体 solid, liquid, gas adj. 固体的;实心的,无空隙的;结实的,坚固的 solid fuels solid food a solid sphere solid furniture a man of solid build 1) Matter has three states: solid, liquid and gas.

2) When water freezes, it becomes solid and we call it ice.

be to (do): (something) will definitely happen, or it must happen 不可避免要发生或必须发生 e.g.They said goodbye, little knowing that they were never to meet again. She is to be honoured for this great work.

Mr. Clark said to his daughter, “You are to be home by 10 o’clock at the latest.”

3.It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour, …
1). (使某物)炸开,爆炸

2). (指感情)激发
3). (指人口)突然或迅速增加 The firework exploded in his hand and he was hurt seriously. I was frightened when she exploded into loud laughter. Now it is not easy to find jobs with the exploding population. explosion n. 爆炸(声) explosive adj.爆炸性的,易爆炸的

in time (for sth/to do sth): not late 及时;不迟 She will be back in time to prepare dinner.

in time: sooner or later; eventually 迟早;最后 I’ll see him in time. 总有一天我会遇见他。 in/out of time: in/not in the correct time 合/不合节拍 The audience clapped in time to the music.

4. As the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface.
随着地球的冷却, 地球的表面就开始出现了水。


adj.凉快;冷静;冷淡 v. (使)变冷;冷静下来

1) Let’s sit in the shade and get cool. 2) I knew I had to keep cool. 3) His play received a cool response from the public. 4) The rain has cooled the air. 5) Let your soup cool a little before you drink it. 6) A heated argument can be settled better if both sides cool down first. 7) I tried to cool her down but she was still very angry when she left.

5. Nobody knew that it was going to be different from other planets going round the sun. be very / much / quite / entirely / totally different from 与…不同 1)城市生活和农村生活很不同。 City life is quite different from country life. 2)他们的品位和我不同。 Their tastes are different from mine. There are differences between…and… …与…之间有不同之处 tell…from… 把…与…区分开来 the same as… 与…一样 be similar to 与…相似

going round the sun为现在分词短语,做定语,表示一 般的动作。例如:

Men breaking the law will be punished. Men who break the law will be punished.

Can you see the girl dancing with your boyfriend? Can you see the girl who is dancing with her boyfriend?

6. It allows the earth to dissolve harmful gases, which… allow vt. 允许、许可、容许 allow+n./pron./doing allow sb. to do be allowed to do

My father doesn’t allow smoking at home. In fact he doesn’t allow us to smoke anywhere at any time.
父亲不允许在家里吸烟。实际上,他不允许我们在任何地方 任何时候吸烟。

Are we allowed to use the computer?

be harmful to 对…有害 do harm to sb. = do sb. harm 伤害某人,对某人有害处 1) Pollution is especially harmful to animals. 2) Smoking will do you a lot of harm.

7. That made it possible for life to begin to develop. D 1. The foreign Minister said, “_____ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace. ”(2004BJ) A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is C 2. I like ____ in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright. (NMET2004) A. this B. that C. it D. one 3. Why don’t you bring D to his attention ___ that you are too busy to do it? A. this B. that C. what D. it


4. Why? I have nothing to confess. A ____ you want me to say? A. What is it that B. What it is that C. How is it that D. How it is that 5. Was it at the school A was named after a ____ hero ______ he spent his childhood? A. which ; that B. where; where C. that; where D. which; where

8. They multiplied and filled the first oceans and seas with oxygen

multiply (数目上)增加,增多;乘;(使)繁殖 1) Our problems have multiplied since last year. 2) 2 and 5 multiply to make 10. 3) 6 multiplied by 5 is 30. = Multiply 6 by 5 to make 30.

4) The plants here multiply rapidly.

9. This encouraged the development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. encourage 鼓舞;促进;怂恿。后接名词、代词,也可接不

High prices for corn and wheat will encourage farming.

My success encouraged me to continue.

He encouraged me to learn dancing.

development (1)[U]成长,发育;发展(过程);扩展

The development of this industry will take several years.

(2)[C]开发区, 新社区

a new housing development 新建住宅区
(3) [C]进化,进展;新情况,新闻

What are the latest developments?
The use of computers in teaching is a recent development.

10. Many millions of years later the first green plants began to appear on land. late adj. 迟到的,晚的;前任的;以前的;已故的 later adv. 后来,较晚时候,过后 adj. late的比较级(更迟的,更后的) latest adj. 最新的 lately adv. =recently 近来 1) Mr. Zhu Rongji is the late Prime Minister of China. 2) He is often late for school. 3) She said she would ring you later this morning. 4) Have you heard about the latest news? 5) It’s only lately that she has been well enough to go out.

11. When the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time.

She is growing into a beautiful young woman.

12. They produced young generally by laying eggs.
It’s generally believed that…一般认为… generally speaking 一般而言,概括来说
1) It’s generally believed that girls work harder than boys do. 2) Generally speaking, women cry more easily than men.





意义 躺,位于 撒谎 搁,放, 下蛋

lie lie lay


lain lied laid

lying laying

lied laid

The naughty boy ___ to me that the hen that ___ D

there just now had___ two eggs the day before.
A. laid; laid; laid C. lied; laid; lain B. laid; lay; lain D. lied; lay; laid

13. Small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the earth.
散布, 传播,蔓延, 伸展,扩展

1) The news spread through the school very quickly. 2) There’s a desert spreading for hundreds of miles. 3) He spread out his arms to welcome us. 4) I spread a new cloth on the table.

14. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. 阻止某人做某事 : prevent sb. (from) doing sth.
stop sb. (from) doing sth. keep sb. from doing sth. 1) We must prevent them from making trouble. 2) You should prevent the child from injuring himself. If nothing prevents, …

如果没有什么阻碍的话 , …

15. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved. sb. / sth. sb. to do sth. depend on sb. doing sth. sb. /sth. for sth. wh相信,信赖, 依靠,依赖, 视…而定,取决于
1) When you are in a strange place you’d better depend on the map. 2) You can’t depend on others to help you. 3) All living things depend on the sun for their growth. 4) He depends on his pen for his living.

5) You can depend on him. He’ll lead you there. 6) Success depends on your own hard work. 7) Our success depends on whether everyone works hard. depend on it 没问题,请放心(句末或句首)
That /It (all) depends. 那得看情况而定 1) Depend on it, you’ll succeed. 2) He may support me, but it depends .
Tell him what you want to say; he’s a man to __. C A. count B. believe C. trust D. depend 解析:相信/信赖某人: count on sb. believe in sb. depend on sb. trust (in) sb.

Word study:
Translate the following into English 1. 把……当作 think of …as 2. 太阳系 solar system 3. 总有一天;及时 in time 4. 一般地说来 generally speaking 5. 信赖;取决于 depend on 6. 目前 at present 7. 做出选择 make choices 8. 天文学 astronomy 9. 氧 oxygen 10.阻止 prevent …from …

make watch wonder be cool multiply begin exist explode Where do we come from? How did the watch universe __________ ? When we _______ the begin stars through the telescope, we _________ wonder exists why the universe ________ . After the “Big was Bang” ,the earth ______ just a cloud of energetic dust. Somehow it _________ loudly exploded with fire and rock, which ______ the earth’s made atmosphere. As the earth _______ down water cooled _______ to appear on its surface, which was began important for the beginning of life. Then living multiplied things __________ on the earth.

Language points for Reading(P30)

cheer up : 欢呼,喝彩,感到高兴,使高兴。

_____________________ when they The crowd cheered up saw the team arrive. 他带她去听音乐会来使她高兴。 He took her _____________ to to the concert cheer her up ____________.

watch …do/doing :观看,注视 我们看着太阳正在树后面落下。 watched the sun setting We _____________________ behind the trees.

每一天当他们看到植物生长,他们的心里都 充满了希望。 watched the plant grow Every day as they __________________ , their hearts filled with hope.

now that :既然,由于

既然每个人都到了,我们就可以开始会议。 _________________________, Now that everybody is here we can begin the meeting.
由于你是一个大男孩,你就必须行为表现 得更好. Now that you are a big boy _______________________, you must behave better.

We watched amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s gravity increased. amazed 是过去分词,此处做状语用

unnoticed He came in _________ .
break out


A quarrel broke out _________________ suddenly at midnight.


Review the reading materials.

Find out the beautiful sentences in this unit.

Thank you very much. Good bye!


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