高考英语二轮复习 第2部分 专题1 追本溯源 突破阅读理解 第3节课件_图文

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第三节

顺藤摸瓜——明辨词义猜测

《考试说明》 指出: 正确理解文章中单词或短语的含义是理解 文章的第一步, 也是理解文章的基础。 但英语单词的含义并非完全 等同于词典中所标注的汉语意思,其含义随不同的语境会有所不 同。 能根据上下文正确理解灵活变化的词义, 才算是真正初步具备 了一定的阅读理解能力。此外,阅读文章时,常常会遇到一些过去 未见过的词, 但许多这类生词的词义可以通过上下文推断出来。 这 种不使用词典而通过阅读上下文来推断生词含义的能力, 是一个合 格的读者所必须具备的能力, 因此也是阅读理解中经常检测的一种 能力。

[设题方式——知方向] 词义猜测题常见的命题方式有以下几种: 1.The word/phrase “...” in the passage means 2 . The by to word/phrase . 3 . Which of the following is nearest/closest in meaning ? 4.The word/phrase “...” probably refers to as . . 5 . According to the passage , the word “ ... ” is known “...” could be best . replaced

[解题技巧——明方法] 1.利用构词法猜词 英语中有大量的单词是通过合成或加前后缀构成的, 运用构词 法判断生词的意义是一种快速有效的解题方法。 2.利用语境及逻辑关系猜词 利用上下文语境和前后句之间的并列、因果、转折、对比、解 释、定义和举例等关系来猜测词义。同时要特别留心某些词语,如 or,that is,in other words,including,although,but,even if,on the other hand, on the contrary, other than, rather than, more than, instead of 等。

3.利用同义解释猜词 同义解释形式多样,有的利用下定义,有的利用 or,that is(to say),in other words,namely 等引出后面的解释,有的利用破折号、 同位语(从句)、定语从句或同义词、近义词等引出后面的解释。 4.利用常识及生活经验猜词 考生要运用非语言知识提示来提高分析能力, 力图理解阅读中 的生词,以明确把握作者的意图。

[干扰特点——晓陷阱] 1.对原相应表达方式的不正确改写 2.故意丢三落四,释意不完整 3.半对半错 4.曲解原意

考题中若要求我们猜测熟悉词语的意思, 我们必须通过上下文 得出其在特定场合下的特殊意思, 那些常规含义的选项不会是要选 择的正确答案。

(2016· 高考全国甲卷阅读理解 B)Five years ago,when I taught art at a school in Seattle,I used Tinkertoys as a test at the beginning of a term to find out something about my students.I put a small set of Tinkertoys in front of each student, and said: “Make something out of the Tinkertoys.You have 45 minutes today—and 45 minutes each day for the rest of the week.”

A few students hesitated to start.They waited to see what the rest of the class would do.Several others checked the instructions and made something according to one of the model plans provided.Another group built something out of their own imaginations. Once I had a boy who worked experimentally with Tinkertoys in his free time.His constructions filled a shelf in the art classroom and a good part of his bedroom at home.I was delighted at the presence of such a student.Here was an exceptionally creative mind at work.His presence meant that I had an unexpected teaching assistant in class whose creativity would infect (感染) other students.

Encouraging this kind of thinking has a downside. I ran the risk of losing those students who had a different style of thinking.Without fail one would declare, “But I'm just not creative.” “Do you dream at night when you're asleep?” “Oh,sure.” “So tell me one of your most interesting dreams.”The student would tell something wildly imaginative.Flying in the sky or in a time machine or growing three heads.“That's pretty creative.Who does that for you?”

“Nobody.I do it.” “Really—at night,when you're asleep?” “Sure.” “Try doing it in the daytime,in class,okay?”

[语篇解析] 本文是一篇记叙文。 作为一名教师, 作者用一种玩具培养孩子 们的创造性和动手能力,其中一个孩子的创造性引起了作者的注 意。

5.The teacher used Tinkertoys in class in order to A.know more about the students B.make the lessons more exciting C.raise the students' interest in art D.teach the students about toy design



解析:选 A。细节理解题。从题干的 in order to 判断,本题询 问作者在课堂使用这种玩具的目的,第一段提到 as a test ...to find out something about my students,由此可知作者的目的是更多地了 解自己的学生, 因此选 A 项。 B 项“让课程更激动人心”, C 项“提 高学生们对艺术的兴趣”,D 项“教学生玩具设计”,均不是作者 的目的。

6.What do we know about the boy mentioned in Paragraph 3? A.He liked to help his teacher. B.He preferred to study alone. C.He was active in class. D.He was imaginative.

解析:选 D。推理判断题。第三段作者描述这个学生,说他特 别有创造性(was an exceptionally creative mind at work),因此选 D 项。imaginative 有想象力的。作者在该段说他的创造力能够感染班 上其他学生, 这让作者意外地有了一个教学帮手, 没有说他喜欢帮 助老师(A 项错),文章没有提到他更喜欢独自一个人学习(B 项错), 也没有提到他在课堂上非常活跃(C 项错)。

7. What does the underlined word “downside” in Paragraph 4 probably mean? A.Mistake. C.Difficulty. B.Drawback. D.Burden.

解析:选 B。词义猜测题。前文提到作者很喜爱这个学生,说 这个学生的创造性能够感染其他学生, 下文说“冒着失去那些有不 同 的 思 考风 格 的 学生 的 风 险 ” , 根 据语 境 前 后的 对 比 判断 , downside 的含义应该是 drawback“ 不利条件,缺点 ” ,而不是 mistake“错误”,difficulty“困难”,burden“负担”。

8 . Why did the teacher ask the students to talk about their dreams? A.To help them to see their creativity. B.To find out about their sleeping habits. C.To help them to improve their memory. D.To find out about their ways of thinking.

解析:选 A。推理判断题。根据题干信息可知本题考查的是文 章后半部分对话的信息。 作者鼓励学生讲述他们最有趣的梦, 然后 鼓励学生说, “白天在课堂上也试一试做梦,好吗?”由此推断, 作者让学生讲述他们的梦, 是为了帮助学生看到自己的创造性, 因 此选 A 项。 B 项“为了弄清楚他们的睡眠习惯”, C 项“为了帮助 他们提高记忆力”,D 项“为了弄清楚他们的思维方式” ,均不是 作者的目的。

[语篇脉络]







1.find

out

something

about

students

2.reaction/performance made something creative mind

3.waited

4.checked the instructions and 6.an exceptionally

5.out of their imagination

7.How did the author encourage students

A Journey to Mecca: In the footsteps of Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta is considered one of the world's greatest travelers.During the 14th century,he traveled about 75,000 miles in search of knowledge and for the love of travel.To share the learning and research so highly valued by Islamic(伊斯兰教的) culture,the ruler of Morocco,Abu Inan Faris,

wanted Ibn Battuta's worldwide travels recorded and published when he returned home to Morocco after almost 30 years.Ibn Juzayy, a Moroccan Court Secretary,was appointed to write down Ibn Battuta's experiences.His travel journal, The Rihla, documents this extraordinary achievement.It gives us a first?hand account of life in the 14th?century Muslim world.The original book, handwritten in Arabic, can be viewed today at the National Library in Paris.

The early 14th century was a favorable age for a Muslim traveler.It was nearing the end of the Golden Age of Islam,one of the great explosions of scientific and cultural achievement in world history.Caravans( 旅 行 队 )and sea lanes created transportation and communication networks that stretched across continents,including Europe,Africa,Asia.

Towns and cities were regularly visited by merchants,traders, doctors,artists,craftsmen,scholars and pilgrims(朝圣者)carrying goods and ideas.All of these promoted the exchange of goods and ideas on a scale not seen previously in world history.As an educated man with professional legal skills,Ibn Battuta enjoyed kindness, companionship and offers of employment throughout the Islamic world.

Journey to Mecca describes the 5,000?mile journey Ibn Battuta made in 1325 and 1326 from his hometown of Tangier,Morocco,to reach Mecca,in what is now the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,to make the pilgrimage.During this dangerous and awesome 18month pilgrimage,he met many hindrances as he was attacked by robbers, troubled by thirst,and forced to retrace(折回)his route due to war along the Red Sea.Joining the legendary Damascus Caravan with thousands of pilgrims bound for Mecca,he completed the final leg of what would be his first of six journeys to Mecca.

The goal of the film was to tell the remarkable story of Ibn Battuta and to promote a better understanding of Islam in the West, said the producers of Journey to Mecca. 1.Which of the following can be used to describe Ibn Battuta's time? A.The Golden Age of Islam just started. B.Economic development slowed down. C.International communication greatly improved. D.Misunderstanding arose around the Islamic world.

2 . What does the underlined word “hindrances” in the third paragraph mean? A.Tricks. C.Opportunities. B.Friends. D.Barriers. .

3.From the passage,we know that Ibn Battuta A.wrote The Rihla by himself B.first arrived in Mecca in 1326 C.was a successful businessman D.was a native of Saudi Arabia

1.解析:选 C。推理判断题。由第二段可知,在伊本· 白图泰 的时代,国际之间的交流水平得到了空前提高。 2.解析:选 D。词义猜测题。由 as he was...the Red Sea 可知, 伊本· 白图泰被强盗攻击,受到干渴的折磨,战争迫使他折返旅行 路线。可以推断 hindrances 应该是“障碍”的意思。 3.解析:选 B。细节理解题。由第三段开头 Journey to Mecca describes...to reach Mecca 可知, 伊本· 白图泰于 1325 年至 1326 年从 摩洛哥到达了麦加。由段末 he completed...to Mecca 可知,这是他 第一次到达麦加。

B I'm a single mummy blogger.I had been unemployed since November 2011,and eventually started to cook for myself and my three?year?old son on an extremely low budget last summer. I wrote on my blog back in July 2012,in a post titled Hunger Hurts, that poverty is the sinking and choking feeling when your two ?year?old son finishes his one bowl of porridge and says, “Can I have some more please,Mummy?”

With only £6 a week,I started to work out my

meals.A carrot

and bean soup, the carrot, cumin(土茴香籽) and bean hamburger, and onion pasta sauce(意大利面酱).I began to post the recipes on my blogs.Then the Sure Start Children's Centre referred me to my local food bank for help.As a result,I could write more recipes with 4 more pounds a week to buy more materials.The to see recipes made using basic response was

unbelievable.People struggling financially said how much it helped ranges from supermarkets.

There was also criticism.People called my costings

dishonest,

because “you can't buy half an onion” .I've explained that I'll use one half for lunch in a soup, and the other half for dinner.Then there's the £3.48 bottle of red wine I put in my dishes.In fact that bottle lasted well over a month.Apparently,that's still extravagant(奢侈 的). I've never sold it as an ideal life-simply how I dealt with

mine.Something had to change, so I changed it, and I wrote about it.

Life has taken unexpected turns.I have spoken in Parliament(议会) on food poverty,and been interviewed for an Oxfam report on food banks.Penguin has signed me to write a book.Readers keep asking if I will still live on such a tight budget.Surely yes because I will never forget the tears and happiness I have gone through.

4.What kind of person is the author? A.Positive and smart. B.Humorous and energetic. C.Practical but extravagant. D.Skillful but dishonest.

5.What makes the author's blog attractive to so many readers? A.Articles dealing with an ideal life. B.The way of feeding her son. C.Practical recipes posted on her blog. D.The terrible feeling of being poor.

6. What does the “food bank” in the third paragraph probably do? A.Sell food to local people. B.Post blogs of creative food recipes. C.Educate hungry children. D.Offer financial help to poor people.

7 . We can infer that the author's book will probably focus on . A.how to get rid of poverty B.how to be an honest blogger C.how to avoid being extravagant D.how to live on a tight budget

4.解析:选 A。推理判断题。通读全文可知作者虽贫困但对 生活的态度是积极的; 她能在经济拮据时想出一周只花 6 英镑的食 谱说明她很精明,故答案为 A 项。 5.解析:选 C。细节理解题。根据第三段内容可知答案为 C 项。

6. 解析: 选 D。 词义猜测题。 根据第三段的“As a result, I could write more recipes with 4 more pounds a week...” 可知 food bank 是一 家向穷人提供经济帮助的机构,故答案为 D 项。 7.解析:选 D。推理判断题。根据最后一段最后两句可知作 者要写的那本书主要内容是如何靠低预算生活,故答案为 D 项。

C Facebook( 脸谱网 ) friends cannot replace the real thing , say psychologists(心理学家). People are happier and laugh 50% more when they talk face to face with friends or via webcam(web camera)than when they use social networking sites,a study has found. Dr.Roberts,a famous lecturer at the University of Chester,said such websites don't appear to help people make true friendships.Based on two questionnaires(调查表),he found there was no link between Facebook use and people with larger groups of friends.

Dr.Roberts , whose work will be presented at the British Psychological Society conference in Harrogate, said, “The bottom line conclusion is that our relationships are not dependent on the quantity of our communication.They depend on quality,and even Skype (一种 网络即时语音沟通工具 ) is better at increasing the quality of our communication than time spent on Facebook.” Even talking on the phone or texting does not make people feel as good as sharing a smile, the research says.The studies suggest quality , not quantity , of communication is the most important for keeping friends for life.

People find the most satisfying relationships come from a small number of close friends,with an outer “ring” of 10 significant others.With these people,it doesn't matter what type of social media you use for communication.But people who want to “contact the world at large” using Facebook can be disappointed because they spread themselves too thinly,claim researchers.

In a third study,Dr.Roberts asked people to communicate with friends face to face or via Skype and keep a 14day diary.This was compared with communicating via phone,text messages or social networking sites.People communicating face to face or on Skype were 50% more likely to laugh,and they rated themselves as significantly happier.

8.Dr.Roberts's finding that there was no connection between Facebook use and people with many friends was A.based on questionnaires B.based on conversations C.through instant messages D.through social media .

9.What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph? A.Most people contact each other online. B.Keeping a friend for life is not easy. C.The quality of communication is important. D.Skype is better at understanding us than Facebook.

10.What does the underlined sentence in the fifth paragraph probably suggest? A.They are too excited to express themselves. B.They limit their social circle to a small range. C.They spread their information at a low speed. D.They lack information to introduce themselves. 11.What is Dr.Roberts's attitude towards the use of Facebook? A.Positive. C.Responsible. B.Casual. D.Unsupportive.

【解题导语】 本文是一篇研究报告。随着科技的发展,脸谱 网也走进了人们的生活, 人们更多地使用网络媒体进行交友, 但专 家认为我们的友谊取决于交流的质量而非数量。 另一份调查研究也 发现: 面对面地或用网络即时语音沟通工具与朋友交谈的人会比用 社交网站的人更加快乐,且笑容也会比他们多出 50%。

8. 解析: 选 A。 细节理解题。 根据第三段第二句“Based on two questionnaires(调查表), he found there was no link between Facebook use and people with larger groups of friends.”可知, 这一调查发现是 建立在两份调查表的基础之上的。故选 A。 9. 解析: 选 C。 段落大意题。 根据第四段中的“...our relationships are not dependent on the quantity of our communication.They depend on quality...” 以及 “The studies suggest quality , not quantity , of communication is the most important for keeping friends for life.”可 知,该段主要强调交流质量的重要性。故选 C。

10. 解析: 选 B。 句意理解题。 根据第五段画线部分之前的“But people who want to‘contact the world at large’using Facebook can be disappointed”可知, 想通过脸谱网广交天下朋友的人, 会感到失望。 因为使用脸谱网的人不是扩大了交友范围而是受限于较小的社交 圈内,所以他们才会感到失望。故选 B。 11. 解析: 选 D。 观点态度题。 根据第四段中的“...our relationships are not dependent on the quantity of our communication.They depend on quality...” 和 第 五 段 中 的 “But people who want to ...can be disappointed”可知,Dr.Roberts 对 Facebook 的态度是不支持的。故 选 D。

D What could be cuter than your puppy giving his doggy friend a kiss on the nose? Nothing,really.But is your dog actually planting a kiss on his friend? Yes,but that's only one of the reasons your dog may lick another dog's nose.Here are some other reasons why your dog may lick another dog's nose. During an introduction,a shy and lowerranking dog will lower his head,avoid direct eye contact and gently extend his tongue to lick the nose of a more confident and high?ranking dog.The first dog licks the nose of the second dog to simply make it know that he comes in peace.

Dogs who are already friends will also trade kisses.Two strongly bonded dog pals will lick and clean each other.They give each other “dog kisses” showing friendship. Puppies also “kiss” their mothers,but it's not a gesture of love.When puppies stop suckling(吸吮) their mothers' tits for milk and start to eat semisolid(半固体)food instead,they lick their mothers' mouths and noses in the hope of getting the mother to regurgitate(反 哺)some semidigested food.

So how to help your bashful dog make friends with other dogs? You can carefully select confidentbutfriendly and goodtempered dogs to play with your shy dog , to help him develop his social skills.Also consider taking him to a special training class that focuses on socialization and positive training technique. Do not disturb them when your two dogs play “kiss” briefly with each other.Sit back and enjoy this display of friendship.Then call them over and have them do a command such as “sit” or “shake paws”.Offer them treats as a reward for being good to each other.

12.We know a shy and lowerranking dog licks the nose of a higherranking dog to A.ask the dog for help B.show he is friendly C.show his anger D.show his respect for him .

13.What can we know about two dogs who are already friends? A.They seldom give each other kisses. B.They usually avoid direct eye contact. C.They like keeping their friendship a secret. D.They show their friendship by “dog kisses” . 14.What does the underlined word “bashful” in Paragraph 5 mean? A.Shy. C.Lovely. B.Honest. D.Little.

15.The writer wrote this passage to A.tell us about a study he did recently B.explain why a dog kisses other dogs C.tell us how to raise dogs D.help us to make friends with dogs



12.解析:选 B。细节理解题。根据第二段可知,那条狗那样 做是为了表示它是友好的。 13.解析:选 D。细节理解题。根据第三段可知,它们会通过 亲鼻子来表示它们的友谊。

14.解析:选 A。词义猜测题。根据画线词后面的 You can carefully select confidentbutfriendly and goodtempered dogs to play with your shy dog,to help him develop his social skills.可知,作者在 讲如何帮助“羞怯的”小狗。 15.解析:选 B。目的意图题。通读全文可知,作者主要是讲 为什么狗会亲鼻子。


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