高考英语一轮复习 主谓一致1


吉林省长春市实验中学 高考英语一轮复习 主谓一致 1
一.基本概念: “主谓一致”指的是主语和谓语在人称和数上保持一致。 三个原则:语法一致原则、 意义一致原则 邻近一致原则。 二.基本用法 1.集体名词作主语 army , audience , class , club , committee(委员会),company ,crowd ,family , group , team government , organizati on , party ,population , public ,staff(全体工作人员),等。 ①如果表示 整体概念, 谓语动词用单数形式; ②如果表示强调其成员,谓语复数形式。 ③集体名词 cattle , people, police 作主语时,谓语动词只用复数。 ④无生命的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词常用单数形式。clothing, furniture , baggage / luggage ,equipment , poetry , scenery My family has moved to the south .我家搬到南方去了。 (强调整体性) My family are all music lovers 我的一家人都是音乐爱好者(强调个体成员) All the furniture has be en moved to another r oom. Much equipment is needed in our lab.我们的实验室需要更多的设备。 Be calm! The police are coming . 镇 静!警察就要来了。 2.主谓一致遵循邻近原则,即谓语动词应与邻近的一个主语再人称和数上保持一致。 or , either…or , neither…..nor , not only …..but(a lso)…., not…but… there be 句型中,be 动词的单复数与最近的名词一致。 Eeither you or I am mad . Not only he but also all his family are keen on concerts. Ne ither the students nor the teacher knows this matter. There is a table and four chairs in the room.房间里有一张桌子和四把椅子。 3.① and 或 both…and…连接主语时,指的是复数概念,谓语动 词用复数形式。 ②当连接的主语在意义上指同一人同一物,同一事或同一概念时,谓语动词用单 数。 如:Ham and eggs , salt and water , war and peace , bread and butter , law and order 等 ③当有 and 连接的并列主语受 each ,every, no ,many a 修饰时,谓语动词要用单数。 Bread and butter is what we usually have for breakfast. A knife and fork is on the table . 桌子上有副刀叉。 Jim and Mary are my good friends. Both brother and sisiter are college students. Each teacher and ( each) student was given a ticket.每一位老师和学生都发了一张票 Every hour a nd (every) minute is important. 每小时和每分钟都很重要。 4.表示时间、距离、金额、重量等的复数名词作主语时,视为整体,谓语动词用单数。 但:强调数目,谓语动词用复数。 Twenty years is a long time in one’s life . Ten dollars is enough for this pair of shoes.
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One hundred cents make a dollar. More than fifty years have passed since they got married. 5. none, neither 作主语时,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。但当 none 指代不可数名 词时,谓语动词用单数。 No ne of the money in the drawer is mine . 抽屉里的钱没有一点是我的。 None has / have been found .一个也没有找到。 Neither statement was true. Neither of them knows/know the answer. 6. each ,either ,或由 some- , any- , no- , every-构成的词作主语时,谓语动词用 单数。 Each 作同位语 时,谓语动词的单复数根据主语而定,不受其影响。 Either of the stories is astonishing .这两个故事中的任何一个都令人惊讶。 Somebody is waiting for you at the school gate 有人在学校大门口等你。 The students each have a textbook. 7. 主 语 + with ,together, along with , like ,in addition to , as well as , including ,more than , rather than , no less than , except ,but 等词语时,其谓 语动词由其前面的主语决定 More than 200 people including a baby were killed in the air crash.. The teacher with two students was at the meeting. The girl as well as the boys has learned to drive a car. 8. all / most / half / plenty /enough / some / the rest…+ of + n / pron 作主 语 时,谓语由名词决定。但是, 当上面这些词单独作主语时, 主谓一致要遵循意义一致原则, 即: 如果所指为复数意义, 谓语动词用复数形式;如果所指为单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式。 All was silent .万籁俱寂 All were silent .大家都沉默着。 Some The The Half Half of the citizens are for the plan. 有些市民赞同这个计划。 rest of the lecture is dull. 讲座的其余部分是枯燥的 rest of the bicycles are on sale today . 剩余的自行车今天出售。 of the farmland was damaged in the flood .一半的农田再洪灾中遭受破坏。 of us are still unemployed. 我们这些人中有半数仍然失业。

9.当 form / kind / part / piece / sort / type ….+ of + n 作主语时,谓语动词的 单复数形式采用语法一致的原则,即取 决于这些词本身的单复数,与 of 后面的名词没有 关系。 A kind of rose in the garden smells very pleasant .这座花园里有一种玫瑰香气怡人。 10 many a / more than one + n 单数 谓语动词单数。 More + 复数名词 + than one 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式 Many a student is busy going over their lessons.许多学生正忙着复习功课。 More children than one were playing in the shade of the tree.不止一个孩子在树阴下玩。 11. 分数 / 百分数 + of +n 谓语动词由名词决定。 one + of + n(pl)作主语时,采用语法一致的原则,即谓语动词用单数。 One-third of his money is spent on books 他的三分之一的钱用来买书。 One of the students in my class is from Hong Kong.我班里有一位学生来自香港。 12.one of +复数名词 / 代词+定语从句…… 定语从句的谓语动词用复数形式。 the only/very+ one of + n.(复数)+定语从句,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。 He is one of the students who have passed the exam.
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He is the only one of the students who has passed the exam. 13. a number of + n (pl)作主语时, 谓语动词用复数形式, the number of + n (pl)作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式。 A number of new houses have been built there . The number of the people who know the secret is v ery limited. 14. an amount of / a quantity of + n 作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式; quantities / amounts of + n.. 作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。 Large quantities of money are needed to equip the school. A large qu antities of storybooks has been bought for the children. 15. 单复数同形的名词 作主语,要根据上下文的意义以及它们的限定词来确定其谓语形 式。 :crossroads ,deer , fish, means .series, sheep ,species , works (工厂)等。 The crossroads is / are dangerous . 这个 / 些十字路口很危险。 A sheep is dying. 有一只绵羊要死了。 Many sheep are eating grass on the hill 有许多绵羊仔山上吃草。 Every means has been tried 各种方法都试过了。 16.以-s 结尾的书刊名、组织名、国家名等作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。 以-s 结尾的群岛、瀑布、山脉等作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。 以-ics 结尾的名词指一门学科时,常用单数谓语动词。常见的这类词有: Economics 经济学 electronics 电子学 physics 物理学 Politics 政治学 mathematics 数学 statistics 统计学 The United Nations is a world organi zation .联合国是一个世界性组织。 The Himalayas extend along the border of India and China. 喜马拉雅山脉沿中印边境延伸。 Politics was his major at university.统计学是他在大学的主修科目。 17.表示单一概念的动词不定式(短语) 、动名词(短语)或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单 数。当 what 引导的主语从句表示复数概念时,谓语动词用复数。 Reading To read What he What we often means learning 读书常意味着学习。 English aloud every morning does you a lot of good.每天早晨朗读英语有很多好处 said h as been recorded.他说的话已被录音了。 badly need are good teachers.我们急需的是好老师。

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