托福写作词汇。托福作文高分宝典

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写作词汇
i. Education 类词汇 Education: 1) 培养(某种素质)cultivate/ foster/ nurture(vts)促进学生身心发展 promote the student’s physical, mental ( 或者用intellectual) and emotional development 心理健康psychological soundness/ well-being/ welfare(nouns) 学习能力(先天就有的)aptitude/talent 学习能力 ( 后天学习到的) ability/ skill 学生接受的学校教育( 名词)schooling(noun) 儿童接受 的家庭教育(名词)upbringing(noun) 给学生以动力give the students motivation to do something 或者 motivate (vt) the student to do something 青少年adolescents/ youngsters/ youths 2) 传授知识 impart(vt)/inculcate(vt) knowledge 灌输高尚的道德观念 instill(vt) high moral values (注以values 复数比试价值观) 给学生以灵感 stimulate the students; thought 或者 give the students inspiration 家长教育子女的方式(名词)parenting/ upbringing 教学法 teaching methodology/ pedagogical methodology 适应(动词) adapt to do something/adjust oneself to do something/ become accustomed to do something 适应能力 adaptability 学生对老师所教授的知识的掌握 students’ grasp/ command(nouns) of what has been taught 就业技能employable/ marketable skill 3) 限制创造力的发展 extinguish(vt)/ stifle(vt)/ constrain(vt) creativity(noun) 打击学生的 积极性dampen/sap(vts) the students’ enthusiasm 或者frustrate the students 产生 不必要的压力beget/ create undue pressure 塑造某人的性格 mould(BrE,vt) one’s character 责任感 a sense of obligation 学生不应该只是被动的接收简单知识的容器 student should not be treated as passive receptacles of predigested ideas. 死记硬背 learn thing by rote. 4) 记忆方程式,公式,定理,定律 memorize equations, formulas, theorems and laws(nouns) 应用apply (vt) 盲从 follow something blindly/ indiscriminately(adv) 用 填鸭式教学教育学生 force-feed(vt) the students 为了记忆而记忆 memorize for memorization’ s own sake 5) 把学生分开教育(比如根据智力或者课堂上的表现) segregate(vt) students 来自于其 他同学的压力 peer pressure 逆境 adverse circumstances /adversity 团队精神 team spirit(noun) 独立思考 think independently(adv) 6) 在理解的基础上学习 learn things through understanding 鼓励学生用辨证的眼光看问 题 encourage students to think critically(adv) 学生的反馈 students’ feedback 或者 students’ input 学生评价老师的教学students appraise / evaluate their teachers’ performance 7) 学生学习的各门功课加在一起 curriculum(noun) 具体的一门课的内容 syllabus 课外 活动 extra-curricular activity 学校是社会的缩影 A school is society in miniature 不遵 守纪律(名词)indiscipline/ misbehavior/ mischief (nouns) 不遵守纪律的(形容词)学 生 disruptive/ unruly students 8) 理论知识theoretical knowledge 通才 generalist 专才 specialist 全面发展的 well-rounded /versatile 为社会健康发展做贡献 contribute to societal well-being/ welfare (注意这里welfare 不是“福利”的意思) 9) 大学学科的分类可以分为:人文学科(包括文学、历史、语言学等)humanities 社会科 学(包括政治、经济、社会学等)social sciences 艺术(包括音乐、雕塑等)arts 文 科的总称也可以称为 liberal arts 或者liberal studies 理科(包括物理、化学、生物等)

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sciences 工科(包括工程,自动化等)engineering 大学里的任何一个学科都可以叫做 一个discipline 基础科学basic sciences 应用科学applied sciences 小学教育 primary-level education 中学教育 secondary-level education 大学教育 tertiary-level education 职业教育 vocational education/ training 青少年adolescents/ youngsters/ youths Education 类模板 1 In this day and age, it is universally acknowledged that education is one of the key determinant of individual success. 众所周知,在当代教育是一个人成功的决定因素之一。 2In contemporary society, education plays a pivotal role in individual development. 在当 代社会,教育在个人发展中扮演着至关重要的角色。 ii. Technology & media 类词汇 10) 尖端的技术 cutting-edged(adj) technology 信息爆炸 information explosion/ information overload 信息时代 the information age/ the information era 无联网被广 泛的使用 the proliferation of the Internet 科技创新及发展 technological innovations/ inventions/ advances/ progressions (nouns) 提高效率 augment/ enhance/ boost(vts) efficiency 提高生产效率 augment/ enhance/ boost(vts) productivity 减少人力的机器 (计算机发明之前的技术) labor-saving machinery 11) 取代人力的机器 labor-replacing machinery 自动化 automation (noun)/ automated (adj) 生物技术 biotechnology 克隆cloning (noun) clone (verb) 远程通讯 telecommunications(noun) 太空探索(名词) space exploration 人的基因构成 one’s genetic makeup/ one’s DNA programming Media 12) 实事current affairs 新闻界 the press 印刷媒体(如报纸、杂志) the print media 报 道新闻的机构 news outlets 电子媒体 the electronic media 无处不在的 prevalent/ ubiquitous/ pervasive 充斥着… be awash with/ be inundated with / be saturated with something 审查 censor 删除 delete/eliminate/ excise(vts) 过多的暴力与色情内容 excessive/ gratuitous violent and pornographic contents 13) 有误导性的 misleading/ misrepresented/ distorted 诈骗性的 fraudulent 虚假的 false/ bogus 报道非常详细的细节 report something in graphic detail 媒体炒作 media hype 夸大事实 exaggerate things/ sensationalize things/ blow things out of all proportion(最后一个口语化说法,但作文也可用) 客观公正的 objective and balanced 揭露 expose/reveal 14) 侵犯隐私 violate/intrude on/ infringe on /someone ‘ s privacy 毁坏某人的名誉 tarnish/sully/smear/besmirch one’s reputation 狗仔队 paparazzi(复数名词,不能加s) 名人 a celebrity/ celebrities(plural) 丑闻 scandals 掩盖(丑闻或罪行等)cover up/ gloss over/whitewash 15) 不客观的,不公正的 biased/skewed/unobjective 如实描写 factual accounts 可信的 reliable/trustworthy/dependable 及时的 up-to-date/ up-to –the-minute (后者比前者 更及时)信息量大的 informative 娱乐性强的 entertaining 有新闻价值 newsworthy 道德准则 code of ethic 或者code of conduct Technology & Media 模板

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In present-day society, technology is advancing/ progressing by leaps and bounds in a host of arenas. 在当代,科技在在众多的领域告诉的发展。 In this day and age, technology is transforming/ revolutionizing the way we live, work, learn and play. 在当代,科技正彻底的改变我们的生活、工作和学习的方式。 Technology is like a two-edge sword—it has generated boons as well as banes to our lives. 科技就像一把双刃剑,给我们的生活既带来了好处也带来了坏处。 Progression in … technology have enabled us to … …科技的进步使我们可以… The media are the most pervasive industries in today’s world and they have profound impact on our lives. 今天,媒体是传播最广泛的产业之一而且对我们的生活产生深远的影 响。 Since the advent of the information era, the media have assumed on increasingly pivotal role in our lives. 随着信息时代的到来,媒体正扮演着一种越来越重要的角色。 iii. Tourism 类词汇 16) 旅游景点 tourist attraction/ tourist spots/ places of interest 开阔眼界 push back/ expand one’s vision/ horizons (注意 horizons 必须是复数) 游客与当地人互动 Tourists can interact with the locals 促进文化交流 promote cultural communication 吸引 draw/ attract/ appeal to (vts)/ be a magnet for somebody 亲身体验(名词) first-hand experience(noun) 多种感观体验的(如听觉、触觉等) multi-sensory(adj) 冲 突 conflict(noun, vi+with) 争端 discord/ dissension 17) 把游客和当地人隔绝 seclude / isolate(vts) the tourists from the locals 商业化 commercialize/ commodify(vts) 欺骗游客的手段 tourist traps 间接体验(比如通过 电视或者互联网,名词)second-hand experience/ vicarious experience 文化遗产 cultural heritage 互联网不会让旅游业过时 The Internet will not render tourism obsolete. Tourism 模板 With international tourism booming, the issue of …has been thrown into sharp relief. 随 着旅游业的发展,…的问题成为了公众注意的焦点。 In this day and age, the burgeoning international tourism has immensely boosted the economic and cultural exchanges between countries the world over. 在当代, 快速发展 的 旅游业促进了世界上不同国家之间的经济与文化交流。 iv. Government 类词汇 Government 18) 当局 authorities 老百姓 citizens/ the citizenry(全体公民,不可数) 规范,管理 regulate/administer/oversee(vts) 实施implement 立法 legislate/make laws 严禁 strictly prohibit/ ban altogether 严格的法律 stringent laws/ legislation 监督 scrutiny(noun)/ scrutinize(vt)/ monitor(vt) 19) 为…拨款 allocate money to something/ subsidize(vt)/ be a patron of / invest in/ finance(vt)/ fund(vt) dedicate money to something 预算budget 税收tax revenue 政府 在某方面的开支 the government spending/ expenditure on something 削减curtail 增

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加augment 当务之急 priority 把…当成当务之急 give priority to something. 责任 obligation/ responsibility 20) 军备竞赛 arms race 自卫 self-defense 国土安全 national security/ homeland security 缺乏远见的政策 short-sighted policy 扩张 expansion/ aggression 谋求霸权 seek/ pursue(vts) hegemony 恶性循环 a vicious circle 地区不稳定因素 destabilizing factor 规章制度 rules and regulations 21) 太空竞赛 space race 武器 arms/ weapons/ armaments 下岗工人 lay-off workers/ downsize workers 失业 unemployment/ joblessness 基础设施infrastructure—比如 public transport system 公共交通系统,power grid 电网pipelines 石油和天然气管道 water supply and drainage system 给排水系统等, 民主与开放的政府 a democratic and progressive government Government 类模板 How the government can optimize its finite financial resources has long been a controversial issue. 政府如何优化配置有限的财政资源长期以来一直有争议。 There are a multitude of competing claims on the government’s limited budget. 很多需要 钱的领域都在争夺政府的有限预算。 Whether the government should allocated money to … has sparked off a spirited controversy. 政府是否应该投资…引起了激烈的争论。 How the government should administer…has long been an issue open to debate. 政府应 该如何管理…一直都是有争议的话题。 v. Animals 类词汇 Animals 22) 动物权益保护主义者 animal rights activists 医学研究 medical research 残忍的cruel/ merciless/ inhuman/ callous/ brutal 活体解剖 vivisection 麻醉anaesthetic 减轻动物 的痛苦 alleviate/ ease animals’ pain 宠物是主人的伙伴 pets are companions of their masters 给主人心理安慰 afford their masters consolation and comfort 偷猎 poach(vi,vt)/poaching(noun) 某一种事物是没有替代物的 there are no replacement/substitutes/alternatives(单数则去掉s) for something. Animal 类模板 Animals have been friends or foes of humanity at different times of human history. 在人类 历史的不同阶段,动物曾经是人类的朋友或者敌人。 Animals are an integral part of the earth’s ecosystem; therefore, animal welfare has long been an issue of intense debate. 动物是生态系统的一个不可或缺的部分。因此,动物是否 生存良好很久以来一直是引起激烈争议的话题。 ? vi. Language & Culture 必备词汇 23) 一种可以通用的语言(比如英语) a lingua franca /a universal language/ a global language 英语的广泛应用 the proliferation of English 英语的统治地位 the dominant role/ the ascendancy / the hegemony of English 方言 dialect/vernacular/the indigenous language 小语种将会消亡 Lesser-known language will become

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extinct/obsolete 小语种的消亡 the extinction/ demise of lesser-known languages 24) 文化遗产包括有形跟无形两种,有形的入历史遗迹,无形的入风俗,仪式,传统道德观 念等 Cultural heritage can be divided into two groups, tangible cultural heritage, such as historic sites and intangible heritage, such as customs, rites, rituals and mores, etc. 保护 preserve 祖先 forefathers/ ancestors 后代 descendants/posterity(后一个是不 可数名词) 少数民族 ethnic minorities 25) 民族团结 the harmony between ethnic group/ race 文化融合 cultural integration and synthesis 相互影响 interaction 文化多元性 cultural diversity 丰富 enrich 狭隘的观 念 insular/provincial/parochial mentality 贬低 deprecated/ denigrate/minimize the importance of /disparage/trivialize/discredit 某事不是一成不变的 something is not set/carved in stone Language & Culture 模板 Today the cultural communication between different counties and regions has been intensified. 今天国家和区域间的文化交流越来越密切。 English is, doubtless, the predominant language in today’s world and its ascendancy has aroused heated debate in the academia and general public alike. 英语无疑是今天世界上 影响最光的语言而它的绝对有事地位在学术界和普通公众中都引起了激烈的争论。 vii. Development类常用词汇 26) 生活节奏加速 the tempo/pace of life has accelerated 疲劳 fatigue 导致人与人的疏 远create alienation between people 过于功利的 materialistic/ mercenary/ money-worshipping 追求最大限度利润 pursue maximum profit 交通堵塞 traffic jams/traffic congestions/grid block(最后一个是不可数名词) 阻碍impede/ hinder/ hamper/obstruct/inhibit(vts) 扶贫poverty alleviation 就业机会 job opportunity/ employment opportunity 贫穷的needy/ poverty-stricken/ impoverished/ deprived/ destitute/ indigent 富裕的 affluent/ wealthy/ well-off 27) 撞车car wrecks/ car accidents 行人pedestrians 交通肇事者 traffic accident perpetrators 违章横穿马路 jaywalk(可以记忆为:周杰伦走路――不走寻常路――美特 斯邦威) 监控摄像头 surveillance cameras 28) 有特殊审美价值的老房子 old buildings of special aesthetic value (注意审美观的英文 说法是 aesthetic values 复数) 有历史特殊意义的老房子 buildings of historic significance 民居 vernacular dwellings 让城市更美观 beautify the cities/ better the cityscape 破旧的房子 decrepit/rundown/rickety/dilapidated 拆除tear down a building/demolish a building/raze a building/ knock down a building 高楼high-rise building 摩天楼skyscrapers 城市化 urbanization 城乡差距the disparity between the city and countryside 城市的 urban 乡村的 rural 搬迁 relocate(vi,vt) 29) 在家上班 (动词) telecommute 休闲leisure/recreation 精神上的享受 amusement and enjoyment 娱乐 entertainment/diversion 宽松的管理laissez-faire management 运营 成本 operating costs/overhead costs 雇用 recruit 会导致效率降低的 counterproductive 劳动力资源 labor pool 抑郁症 depression 失眠 sleeplessness/ sleep-deprivation/insomnia 人口爆炸population explosion/population boom 控制人口 birth control/family planning 爱慕虚荣的 pretentious/ ostentatious 缺少运动的生活方

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式 sedentary lifestyle 营养过剩 over nourishment 发展类模板 The swift changes in …have thrown the issue of … into sharp focus/relief 某方面的快速变 革让…成为公众注意的焦点. In present-day society, the tempo/pace of life has accelerated immensely. 在当代,生活 的 节奏大大的加快了。 In preceding centuries have rendered numerous countries+形容词… 过去的几个世纪的…让很多国家变成了… viii. Environment 类常用词汇 Environment 30) 生态平衡 ecological balance / ecological equilibrium 可持续发展 sustainable development 环保主义者 environmentalists/ conservationists 对环境无害的 environmentally-friendly 节约使用 conserve(vt) 保护preserve 再利用( 动词) reuse/recycle 各国必须携手解决环境问题:Countries on this planet must join forces/ make a concerted effort /unite to combat/tackle/resolve/address environmental problems. 增强公众关于…的意识 raise/ elevate the public awareness of something 短缺 shortage/ scarcity/ dearth/ lack 给资源造成很大压力 put a strain on the already stretched resource 破坏自然资源 wreak havoc on natural resources 看法森林 deforestation 污染pollute/ contaminate 有毒的 poisonous/ toxic 31) 增加农产品产量 boost crop yield 可再生资源 renewable resource 不可再生资源 non-renewable resource(包括金属metal, 矿产 minerals, 石油 petroleum, 天然气 natural gas, 煤coal 等, 后三种可以总称为fossil fuels) 消耗( 某种资源) consume/deplete 用尽 use up/ exhaust 严厉的措施 harsh action/ measures 生态系 统 ecosystem/ ecological system 某一地区所有的生物的总称 the wildlife in a region/ the biota(=flora + fauna) of a region 生物多样性 biodiversity 32) 污水effluent/sewage 排放discharge 温室效应 greenhouse effect /global warming 严 重的severe /grave 白色污染产生的垃圾 non-biodegradable garbage / wastes that cannot decompose or break down/ inorganic trash 谴责而不是纵容 condemn rather than condone(vts) something 臭氧层ozone layer 肥沃的土壤 fertile soil 贫瘠的土壤 infertile soil 耕地 arable land/ farmland Environment 类模板 The earth’s ecosystem has been deteriorating at a staggering rate. 地球的生态系统正以一种惊人的速度恶化。 In this day and age, the impact man exerts on the environment is massive in scale. 在当代, 人类对环境的影响式巨大的。 ix. Globalization 类常用词汇 Globalization 35) (一个国家或者地区的)文化特性 (national or regional) cultural identity 全球文化同 一化过程(名词,即地区文化特征的消失)global cultural homogenization 文化同一性

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(或者叫文化均质性,名词)cultural homogeneity/cultural uniformity 全球化是一把双 刃剑Globalization is a two-edge sword. 地球村 the global village Globalization 类模板 With the vast world gradually shrinking into a small global village, the issue of sweeping globalization has triggered heated debate. 随着巨大的世界逐渐变成了一个很小的地球村, 席卷一切的全球化引发了激烈的争论。 x. Family类常用词汇 37) 老年人 elderly people/ senior citizens 家庭成员间的情感纽带 family bonds/ family ties 归属感 a sense of belonging 对…的依恋 an attachment to something/ an affinity for something 贫穷的家庭 deprived families 富裕的家庭 affluent families 单亲家庭 single-parent household 虐待 mistreat/ abuse 家庭暴力 domestic violence 毒品上 瘾 addiction to drugs/ be addicted to drugs Families 类模板 It is generally accepted that families are the bedrock of any modern society. 普遍认为, 家庭是现代社会的基石。

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3 分词汇=20 分? Topic? ? ? ? ? Education? No.? Vocabulary? 1? 2? 3? 4? parenting? schooling? cultivate? awareness? =sense? =recognition? contribute?to? motivation? adapt?to? afford?sth.? prevalent? journalist? the?press? coverage? misleading? dependable? up‐to‐the?minute? transform? advance? a?staggering?rate? information?overload? enhance? innovation? technological? telecommunications? solve=combat=tackle? =resolve=address? alleviate=ease? Invest?in?=allocate? ? money?to? authority? ban=forbid=prohibit? scrutinize? administer=regulate? tax?revenue? obligation? broaden?one’s?horizon? conflicts? promote? local?residents? local?inhabitants? ? n.? n.? v.? n.? ? 家长给小孩的教育? 学校对学生的教育? 培养? 意识?

5? 6? 7? 8? ? ? ? Media? 9? 10? 11? 12? 13? 14? 15? ? ? ? Technology? 16? 17? 18? 19? 20? 21? 22? ? ? ? ? ? ? Government? 23? 24? 25? 26? 27? 28? 29? 30? 31? 32? ? ? ? Tourism? 33? 34? 35? 36?

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推动? 动力? 适应。。? 。 提供。。? 。 无处不在的? 记者? 新闻界? 报道(动词是 cover)? 有误导性的? 可靠的? 非常及时的? 改变=change? 发展? 惊人的速度? 信息爆炸? 提高,增强? 创新,发明? 科技的? 远程通讯? 解决? 减轻,缓解? 对。。投资? 。 当局? 禁止? 监督? 管理? 税收? 责任? 开阔人的眼界? 冲突? 促进? 当地居民?

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37? 38? ? ? ? Language? 39? 40? 41? 42? 43? ? ? ? Culture? 44? 45? 46? 47? 48? 49? 50? Development? 51? 52? 53? 54? 55? 56? 57?

mutual?understanding? enrich?one’s?experience? the?proliferation?of…? Plays?a?dominant?role?in…? go?extinct? lesser‐known?language? the?widespread?use?of? ancestors? descendants? time‐honored? cultural?heritage? cultural?diversity? cultural?identity? ? ethnic?minorities? the?pace?of? =the?tempo?of?life?

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相互了解? 丰富人的经历? 。。 。 的大量扩散 (英语、 互联网、 环境污染等)? 在。。占统治地位? 。 灭绝? 小语种? 。。的广泛使用? 。 祖先? 后代? 历史悠久的? 文化遗产? 文化多样性? 文化特性? 少数民族? 生活节奏? 城乡差距? 质量差的? 设施? (人与人之间)疏远的? (人)物质化,现实的? 现状?

the? gap? between? the? urban? ? area?and?the?rural?area? inferior? facilities? alienated? materialistic? the?present?situation? =the?current?situation? =the?status?quo? affluent? impoverish? sweeping?trends? a.? n.? a.? a.? ?

58? 59? ? 60? ? 61? Globalization? 62? 63? ? ? ? Women? 64? 65? 66? 67? 68? 69? 70? ? ? Family?
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富裕的,有钱的? 贫穷的? 席卷一切的潮流? 有机结合东西方文化? 侵蚀(本土文化)? 普遍的? 双刃剑? 家庭暴力? 性格平等? 歧视? 一个开明的社会? 家务事? 被。。所拖累? 。 后代? 性格冲突? 家庭的另一种写法?

synthesize? the? Asian? and? ? Western?cultures? erode? universal? a?double‐edged?sword? domestic?violence? gender?equality? discrimination? an?enlightened?society? household?chores? be?tied?down?by? offspring? personality?clashes? household? v.? a.? ? ? ? n.? ? ? ? n.? ? n.?

71? 72? 73?

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74? 75? 76? ? ? ? ? ? Crime? 77? 78? 79? 80? 81? 82? 83? 84? 85?

generation?gap? family?bonds? harmony? crimes=offense? =criminal?acts? commit?a?crime? stringent? punishment?

? ? n.? n.? ? a.? n.?

代沟? 亲情? 和谐? 犯罪? 犯罪? 严厉的? 惩罚? 犯罪率? 猖獗的? 违法的? 遏制(犯罪、污染等)? 保护(某种资源,比如 natural? resources 或 old?buildings)保护 人用 protect? 残酷的? 生物多样性? 伙伴? 替代物 (比如化妆品实验用动物 作替代物而不用人做实验)? 栖息地? 濒危动物? 可持续发展? 开采自然资源? 生态系统? 深远的影响? 节约=save? 如果某种现象自身恶化, 就可以 说它 deteriorate,? 如果某种失误 导致别的现象恶化,就用 aggravate?sth.? 或者用被动? 排放(污染物)? 消耗(资源)? 有益于环保的? 短缺?

the? crime? rate=the? incidence? ? of?crime? rampant? violate?the?law? curb? preserve? a.? ? v.? v.?

? ? ? ? Animals?

86? 87? 88? 89? 90? 91? 92?

inhumane? biodiversity? companions? replacements=alternatives? habitat? endangered?species? sustainable?development? exploit?natural?resources? ? the?ecosystem? profound?impact? conserve? deteriorate? ? aggravate?

a.? n.? n.? n.? n.? ? ? ? ? ? v.? v.?

? ? ? ? ? Environment?

93? 94? 95? 96? 97?

98? 99?

discharge? consume=deplete?

v.? v.? a.? n.?

100? eco‐friendly? 101? scarcity? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

?

准 5 分词汇=30 分? Education? 培养? 促进学生身心发展? 心理健康? 学习能力(先天)? 学习能力(后天)? 学校教育? 家庭教育? 给学生以动力? 青少年? 传授知识? 灌输高尚的道德观? 给学生以灵感? 家长的教育方式? 教学法? 适应? 适应能力? 学生对老师所教知识的掌握? 就业技能? 填鸭式教法教学生? 学生不应该只是被动接受知 识的容器? 死记硬背? 为了记忆而记忆? 责任感? 记忆方程式、公式、定理、 定律? 应用? 盲从? 限制创造力的发展? 打击学生的积极性? 产生不必要的压力? 塑造某人的性格? 把学生分开教育? 来自其他同学的压力? 逆境? 团队精神? 独立思考? 在理解的基础上学习? 鼓励学生用辨证的眼光看问
?

cultivate=foster=nurture?

?

promote? the? student’s? physical,? mental? (intellectual)? and? emotional? ? development? psychological?soundness?(or?well‐being/welfare)? ? aptitude=talent? ability=skill? schooling? upbringing? ? ? ? ? ?

give?the?students?motivation?to?do?sth.=?motivate?the?students?to?do? ? sth.? adolescents=youngsters=youths? Impart?(or?inculcate)?knowledge? instill?high?moral?values?(values 复数表示价值观)? give?the?students?thought?(or?inspiration)? parenting=upbringing? teaching?(or?pedagogical)?melthodology? adapt?to?sth.=adjust?oneself?to?sth.=become?accustomed?to?sth.? adaptability? students’?grasp?(or?command)?of?what?has?been?taught? employable?(or?marketable)?skills? force‐feed?the?students? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Students? should? not? be? treated? as? passive? receptacles? of? predigested? ? ideas.? learn?things?by?rote? memories?for?memorization’s?own?sake? a?sense?of?obligation? Memories?equations,?formulas,?theorems?and?laws? apply? follow?sth.?blindly=follow?sth.?indiscriminately? entinguish=stifle=constrain?creativity? dampen?(or?sap)?the?students’?enthusiasm=frustrate?the?students? beget?(or?create)?undue?pressure? mould?one’s?character? segregate?students? peer?pressure? adverse?circumstance=adversity? team?spirit? think?independently? learn?things?through?understanding? encourage?the?students?to?think?critically? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

题? 学生的反馈? 学生评价老师的教学? 各门功课总称? 具体一门课的内容? 课外活动? 学校是社会的缩影? 不遵守纪律? 违反纪律的学生? 理论知识? 通才? 专才? 全面发展的? 为社会健康发展作贡献? 人文学科? 社会科学? 艺术? 文科总称? 理科? 工科? 学科(统称)? 基础学科? 应用科学? 小(中、大)学教育? 职业教育? 青少年? Technology? 尖端的技术? 信息爆炸? 信息时代? 互联网的广泛使用? 科技创新及发展? 提高效率? 减少人力的机器? 取代人力的机器? 自动化? 生物技术? 克隆? 远程通讯? 太空探索? 人的基因构成? Media? 时事?
?

students’?feedback=students’?input? student?appraise=evaluate?their?teachers’?performance? curriculum? syllabus? extra‐curricular?activities? ? A?school?is?society?in?miniature? ? indiscipline=misbehavior=mischief?(n.)? disruptive=unruly?students? theoretical?knowledge? generalist? specialist? well‐rounded=versatile? contribute?to?societal?well‐being?(or?welfare)? humanities? social?sciences? arts? liberal?studies=arts? sciences? engineering? discipline? basic?sciences? applied?sciences? primary‐level?(or?secondary‐level/tertiary‐level)?education? vocational?education?(or?training)? youths=youngsters=adolescents? cutting‐edged?technology? information?explosion?(overload)? information?age?(or?era)? the?proliferation?of?the?Internet? technological?innovations?(or?inventions/advances/progressions)? augment?(or?enhance/boost)?efficiency? labor‐saving?machinery? labor‐replacing?machinery? ? automation/automated? biotechnology? clone/cloning? telecommunications? space?exploration? one’s?genetic?makeup/?one’s?DNA?programming? current?affairs?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

新闻界? 印刷媒体? 报道新闻的机构? 电子媒体? 无处不在的? 充斥着。。? 。 审查? 删除? 过多的暴力和色情内容? 有误导性的? 欺骗性的? 虚假的? 报道非常详尽的细节? 媒体炒作? 夸大事件? 公正客观的? 揭露? 侵犯隐私? 毁坏某人的名誉? 狗仔队? 名人? 丑闻? 掩盖? 不客观的? 如实的描述? 可信的? 及时的? 信息量大的? 娱乐性强的? 有新闻价值的? 道德准则? Government? 当局? 老百姓? 规范,管理? 实施? 立法? 严禁? 严格的法律? 监督? 为。。拨款? 。 预算?
?

the?press? the?print?media? news?outlets? the?electronic?media? prevalent=ubiquitous=pervasive? be?awash?with=be?inundate?with=be?saturated?with?sth? censor? delete=eliminate=excise? excessive?(or?gratuitous)?violent?and?pornographic?contents? misleading=misrepresented=distorted? fraudulent? false=bogus? report?sth.?in?graphic?detail? media?hype? exaggerate?things=sensationalize?things=blow?things?out?of?proportions? objective?and?balance? expose=reveal=recover? violate?(or?intrude?on/?infringe?on)?someone’s?privacy? tarnish?(or?sully/smear/besmirch)?one’s?reputation? paparazzi? celebrities/the?celebrity? scandals? cover?up=?gloss?over=whitewash? biased=skewed=unobjective? factual?accounts? reliable=trustworthy=dependable? up‐to‐date=up‐to‐the‐minute? informative? entertaining? newsworthy? code?of?ethnics=code?of?conduct? authorities? citizens=the?citizenry? regulate=administer=oversee? implement? legislate=make?laws? strictly?prohibit=ban?altogether? stringent?laws?(or?legislation)? scrutiny=scrutinize=monitor? allocate? money? to? sth.? =subsidize=be? in=finance=fund=dedicate?money?to?sth.? budget? a? patron?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? of=invest? ? ?

?

税收? 政府开支? 削减? 增加? 当务之急? 把。。当作当务之急? 。 责任? 缺乏远见的政策? 恶性循环? 地区不稳定因素? 下岗工人? 失业? 基础设施? 公共交通系统? 民主与开明的政府? Culture? 保护? 祖先? 后代? 民族团结? 互相影响? 文化多元性? 丰富? 狭隘的观念? 贬低? 。。不是一成不变的? 。 Development? 生活节奏加速? 疲劳? 导致人与人之间的疏远? 交通堵塞? 阻碍? 扶贫? 贫穷? 富裕的? 有特殊审美价值的老房? 有特殊历史意义的老房? 让城市更美观? 破旧的(房子)? 高楼? 城乡差距? 精神上的享受? 娱乐?
?

tax?revenue? the?government?spending?expenditure?on?sth.? curtail? augment? priority? give?priority?to?sth.? responsibility=obligation? short‐sighted?policy? a?vicious?circle? destabilizing?factors? laid‐off?workers=downsized?workers? unemployment=joblessness? Infrastructure? public?transport?system? a?democratic?and?progressive?government? preserve? forefathers=ancestors? descendants=posterity? the?harmony?between?ethnic?groups?(or?races)? interaction? cultural?diversity? enrich? insular?(or?provincial/?parochial)?mentality? deprecate=denigrate=minimize?the?importance?of=disparage=discredit? Sth.?is?not?set?carved?in?stone.? The?tempo/pace?of?life?has?accelerated? fatigue? create?alienation?between?people? traffic?jams=traffic?congestion=gridlock? impede=hinder=hamper=obstruct=inhibit? poverty?alleviation? needy=poverty‐stricken=impoverished=deprived=destitute=indigent? affluent=wealthy=well‐off? old?buildings?of?special?aesthetic?value? buildings?of?historic?significance? beautify?the?cities=better?the?cityscape? decrepit=rundown=rickety=dilapidated? high‐rise?building=skyscrapers? the?disparity?between?the?city?and?the?countryside? amusement?and?enjoyment? entertainment=diversion?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

抑郁症? 失眠? 人口爆炸? 控制人口? 缺少运动的生活方式? Globalization? 文化同一性? 全球化是一把双刃剑? 地球村? Tourism? 旅游景点? 开阔眼界? 游客与当地人的互动? 促进文化交流? 吸引? 亲身体验? Environment? 生态平衡? 各国必须携手解决环境问题? 增强公众关于。。的意识? 。 短缺? 资源造成很大压力? 破坏自然环境? 砍伐森林? 污染? 可再生的资源? 不可再生的资源? 消耗? 用尽? 严厉的措施? 严重的? 白色污染产生的垃圾? 谴责而不是纵容? 臭氧层? 肥沃的土壤? 贫瘠的土壤? Animals? 动物权益保护主义者? 医学研究?
?

depression? Sleeplessness=insomnia? population?explosion=population?boom? family?control?=birth?control? sedentary?lifestyle? global?cultural?homogenization=cultural?uniformity=cultural?homogeneity Globalization?is?a?two‐edges?sword.? global?village? ? tourist?attractions=tourist?sports=places?of?interest? push?back?(or?expand)?one’s?vision?(or?horizons)? tourists?can?interact?with?the?locals? promote?cultural?communication? draw?(or?attract/appeal?to/?be)?a?magnet?for?sb.? first‐hand?experience?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

多种感官体验的(听触觉等) multi‐sensory? ? ecological?balance=ecological?equilibrium?

Countries?on?this?planet?must?join?forces=?make?a?concerted?effort?unite? ? to?combat?(or?tackle/resolve/address)?environmental?problems? raise?(or?elevate)?the?public?awareness?of?sth.? shortage=scarcity=dearth=lack? put?a?strain?on?the?already?stretched?resources? wreak?havoc?on?natural?resources? deforestation? pollute=contaminate? renewable?resources? non‐renewable? resources(metals,minerals,petroleum,natural? gas,coal,后 三种为 fossil?fuels)? Consume=deplete? use?up=exhaust? harsh?actions=measures? Severe=grievous? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Non‐biodegradable? garbage=wastes? that? cannot? decompose? or? break? ? down=inorganic?trash? condemn?rather?than?condone?sth.? ozone?layer? fertile?soil? Infertile?soil? animal?right?activists? medical?research? ? ? ? ? ? ?

?

残忍的? 宠物是主人的伙伴? 给主人心理的安慰? ? ? 同义词替换表? 人类? 在当代? 解决? 破坏? 影响? 危险? 明显的? 从事?

cruel=merciless=inhuman=callous=brutal? Pets?are?companions?and?friends?of?their?masters.? afford?their?masters?consolation?and?comfort?

? ? ?

the?human?race=humanity=man=humankind=Homo?sapiens? In?contemporary?society=in?present‐day?society=in?this?day?and?age? Tackle=resolve=address=combat? Destroy=impair=undermine=jeopardize=devastate? Impact=repercussions=implications=ramifications? Perils=hazards=dangers? Manifest=apparent=evident=obvious? Carry?out=conduct=perform=go?about?

积极的, 好的? Beneficial=advantageous? 消极的, 坏的? Baneful=detrimental? 好处和坏处? 无处不在的? 大量的? 需要? 增进? 贫穷的? 保护? 富裕的? 污染? ? ? ? ? Advantages? and? disadvantages=strengths? and? weaknesses=the? upside? and? the? downsides=pros?and?cons=boons?and?banes? Prevalent=pervasive? A?host?of=a?multitude?of=a?vast?number?of(后跟可数名词)=a?great?deal?of=a? vast?amount?of(后跟不可数名词)? Require?necessitate=call?for? Enhance=improve? Impoverished=poor? ? Preserve=protect? Affluent=wealthy=rich? Contamination=pollution?

?


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