2016届高考英语 语法专项突破 第二节 代词和it的用法针对训练 北师大版
1．替代词的应用 it that (those) one (ones)
代词和 it 的用法
考点一 替代词和 it 的用法
特指前面提到过的同一个人或者物 可以指代前面出现过的不可数名词或单数可数名词，指代单数可数名词相当于 the one。其复数形式为 those，相当于 the ones 指代前面出现过的那类事物中的“一个”，其复数形式为 ones
(2013·辽宁高考)To her joy，Della earned first the trust of her students and then that of her colleagues. 令黛拉高兴的是，她首先赢得了她的学生的信任，然后又赢得了同事的信任。 (2012·浙江高考)Studying Wendy's menu， I found that many of the items are similar to those of McDonald's. 研究了温迪的菜单，我发现其中很多东西和麦当劳的相似。 We have various summer camps for your holidays，you can choose one based on your own interests. 我们为你们的假期准备了各种各样的夏令营，你们可以根据自己的兴趣选择一个。 2．it 的用法 (1)指代作用 除了上面讲到的指代前面提到的同一个人或物外， 还指代不清楚或没必要知道说话对象 的性别；可指代环境、情形；也可指代时间、地点、距离、天气、季节、度量衡单位等。 It is a lovely baby.Is it a boy or a girl?
宝宝真可爱，是男孩还是女孩？ It is six miles from Oxford. 这里距牛津 6 英里远。 (2)形式作用 it 常用来作形式主语或形式宾语。 It is important to learn English well. 学好英语是重要的。 I found it impossible to answer the question. 我发现回答这个问题是不可能的。 考点二 不定代词的用法 1．all，both，either，any，neither，none 的区别 都 任何一个 都不(全部否定) 并非 都??
?both＋not ? ? ?not＋both ? ? ?all＋not ? ?not＋all ?
I don't like either of the pictures. 我不喜欢这两幅画中的任何一幅。 All of my clothes are ready?made. 我的衣服全部都是成衣。 She bought two toys，but neither pleased the child.她买了两个玩具，却没有一 个让小孩高兴。 They were all very tired，but none of them would stop to have a rest. 他们都非常累，但没有一个想停下来休息。 Not all of them were invited./All of them were not invited. 他们当中并不是人人都受到邀请。 2．the other，other，another，others 的区别 注：这里仅探讨作代词用时的区别。 the other other another others the other 可单独使用，特指两个人或物中的“另一个” other 不能单独使用，前面常有 any，one，or 等 可单独使用，泛指三者或三者以上的人或物中的“另一个” 单独使用，表示泛指意义，意为“其他的人或事物”，常与 some，many 一起出 现；特指“其他的全部人或事物”时用 the others
To stay awake，he finished a cup of coffee and ordered another. 为了保持清醒，他喝完了一杯咖啡，然后又点了一杯。 You are the team star! Working with others is really your cup of tea. 你是队里的明星！与别人一起工作确实是你的特长。 考点三 人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、疑问代词等的用法 1．人称代词 (1)人称代词的主格在句中作主语，宾格在句中作动词或介词的宾语。 He told me what had happened to him. 他告诉我发生了什么。 (2)下列情况下常用宾格： ① 在 be 后作表语 —Who is it？——是谁？ —It's me.——是我。
②在单独使用或带 not 的简略答语中 —I like coffee better than tea. ——咖啡和茶比起来我比较喜欢咖啡。 —Me，too.——我也是。 2．物主代词 形容词性物主代词(作定语) my，your，his，her，its，our，your，their 名词性物主代词(作主语、表语、宾语) mine，yours，his，hers，its，ours，yours， theirs
如：(1)形容词性物主代词只能用作定语，必须与名词连用。 如：his pen, our books。 (2)“形容词性物主代词＋own”常用来强调“某人自己的”，其后可跟名词。 Don't use my pen.Why not use your own (pen)? 不要用我的钢笔。为什么不用你自己的？ (3)“of＋名词性物主代词(或名词所有格)”构成双重所有格形式。如：a friend of mine。 3．反身代词 反身代词有 myself，yourself，himself，herself，itself，ourselves，yourselves， themselves，在句中作主、宾、表或同位语。 They were ashamed of themselves and sneaked away. 他们自感羞愧，悄悄溜走了。 He was running so fast that he couldn't stop himself. 他跑得太快了，一下子停不下来。 4．指示代词 指示代词主要有 this，that，these，those，注意以下几点： (1)指上文单数或不可数概念时用 that，复数概念时用 those，指下文单数或不可数概 念时用 this，复数概念时用 these。 That is why I'm working hard at my lesson. 那就是我要努力学习的原因。 This is an opportunity to promote the reputation of the company.这是提高公司 声誉的机会。 (2)打电话时，用 this 指自己，用 that 指对方。 This is Joan speaking.Who's that，please? 我是琼，请问你是谁？ [名师点津] this 和 that 还可作副词用， 表示程度， 意为“如此， 那么”， 相当于 so，
作状语。 The problem isn't that (all) easy. 问题并不是那么简单。 5．疑问代词 疑问代词有 what，which，who，whom，whose，whatever，whoever，whichever 等，用 法要点如下： (1)what 除了用来询问职业外，一般指物；which 可指人或物；who，whom，whose 一般 指人。 What do you do for a living？你是干什么的？ Which do you prefer，classical music or popular music？古典音乐和流行音乐你 比较喜欢哪一种？ They are twins，so that I can't tell which is which. 他们是双胞胎，所以我分不清哪个是哪个。 (2)没有一定范围时用 what，意为“什么”；有一定范围时用 which，意为“哪一个”。 What kind of books，if any，do you prefer? 若有一些书的话，你喜欢哪类？ (3)whatever，whoever，whichever 表示强调，意为“到底什么/谁/哪一个”。 Take whatever magazines you want to read. 任何你想读的杂志都可以取阅。 [本节小结] 高考代词的考查角度有两个方面： 一是代词的意义和功能差异； 二是它们相互间语法特 征的差异。 考生在从整体上掌握物主代词、 不定代词、 人称代词、 反身代词等知识的基础上， 需要重点掌握不定代词、人称代词、替代词(that，one，it) 以及代词 it 的用法和区别， 重点关注代词在具体语境和复杂语境中的灵活运用。 针对训练 Ⅰ.选词填空 it；others；either；everyone；nothing；neither；everything 1．(2014·安徽高考)You can ask anyone for help.________ here is willing to lend you a hand. 【答案】 Everyone 2．(2014·大纲全国卷)—Who's that at the door? —________ is the milkman. 【答案】 It 3 ． (2014· 福 建 高 考 )In some countries ， people eat with chopsticks ， while
in________，knives and forks. 【答案】 others 4．(2014·江苏高考)Good families are much to all their members，but ________ to none. 【答案】 everything 5．(2014·江西高考)—When shall I call，in the morning or afternoon? —________.I'll be in all day. 【答案】 Either 6．(2014·山东高考)Susan made________ clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself. 【答案】 it 7．(2014·陕西高考)I'd appreciate ________ if you could let me know in advance whether or not you will come. 【答案】 it 8．(2014·四川高考)She'd lived in London and Manchester，but she liked ________ and moved to Cambridge. 【答案】 neither 9．(2014·浙江高考)An average of just 18.75 cm of rain fell last year，making ________ the driest year since California became a state in 1850. 【答案】 it 10．(2014·重庆高考)A smile costs ________，but gives much. 【答案】 nothing Ⅱ.语篇填空 My friend Tony and I always walk home together after school，for 1.________ live in the same block and 2.________ of us go in for football. One afternoon on 3.________ way home, we were about to say goodbye when we heard a loud shout behind 4.________.As we looked around to see what had happened, we found a middle?aged woman lying on the ground, bleeding. We soon realized that 5.________ had been knocked down by the black car in front of her.We hurried to help 6.________， but a man with dark glasses came over and tried to prevent Tony and 7.________ from getting closer to the wounded woman.So we got very angry with the man.How could 8.________ stop us from helping a dying woman ？The man asked us to turn around and we were surprised to see 9.________ carrying a video camera on 10.________ shoulder.They were just shooting a film!
【答案】 1.we 2.both 3.our 4.us 5.she 6.her 7．me 8.he 9.another 10.his
综合训练 语法填空 在空格处填入适当的代词 People in communities have slowly been pushed apart through the years，mostly because people simply aren't taking the time to say a simple “hello”． After considering 1.________ phenomenon，I decided I was going to change the way I got on with 2.________. My opportunity came one morning when I was in the community library.I passed by a girl who dropped her books out of her locker.Thinking that 3.________ else would help her pick them up，I continued 4.________ way.However，when I had to go back because I forgot my book ， I noticed she had just finished picking them up by herself.5.________ had stopped to help her. “OK，” I thought to 6.________，“this is where I should have changed.” My best opportunity came a few days later when I saw a man sitting by 7.________ waiting for the library to open ， so I sat down next to him and began a conversation.8.________ was difficult to get started，and even when I had to say goodbye，almost every response from my new friend had a tone (语气) of doubt in it.And 9.________ could blame him? People aren't used to making an unprepared chat with a stranger.But a change， no matter how desperately it is needed，doesn't just happen.It takes people like us to make it possible.I advise you to take a small step out of your comfort zone and try to make 10.________ day a little brighter.Together，we can really make our society come closer as a whole. 【答案】 1.this 2.others 3.someone 4.my 5.None 6.myself 7.himself
8.It 9.who 10.someone's