托福作文主体段落拓展技巧之二 1． 因果法句型
1） Because---, --2） As---, --3） Since---, --4） Now that---, --5） Because of---, --6） Due to---, --7） Owing to---, --8） Thanks to---, --例: In recent years, more and more women have gone out to work. Some people maintain that it is the responsibility of our government to provide facilities and adequate staff, free of charge, for the children of these working mothers. Do you agree or disagree with this opinion? The first reason is that offering services free of charge to working mothers will be a great attempt to create equal job opportunities for them. Due to the long-standing sexual discrimination against females that exists in most societies, women are always disadvantaged in the job market. Not only are they paid less than men for the same job, but also they are often treated with suspicion of their capabilities at work because women with children are supposed to devote a substantial amount of their time and energy to childcare. Yet, if there are facilities near the workplace where women can send their children for daycare, they will be able to concentrate on their work and produce excellent results for employees, therefore dispelling the prejudice that female workers are genetically less competent than male workers. 9) be （directly）linked to--10）be（closely ）connected with--11）be (largely) associated with--12) be (strongly) related to--13) be (unquestionably) tied to--例: 谈国际旅游作为全球巨大产业的利弊 While the international travel industry is certainly enjoying a boom time nowadays, a number of interrelated problems are emerging. Firstly, many places of historical interest have been damaged to varying degrees by foreign tourists who have no respect for the local culture. Apparently, these huge losses are largely associated with the exponential growth in the number of international travelers and holidy makers in recent years. 14) The apparent reason is--15) One simple reason for---is--16) It is evident that the biggest reason for --- is--17) One of the main reason is that--18) Another major cause is that--19) Finally, --- is found to be the third contributing factor. 例题: In many countries today, there is insufficient respect to old people. What are the reasons? What problems might it bring to the society? To be sure, the prevalence of disrespect for old people has reached an alarming level in many
societies. One of the main reasons is that adolescents nowadays, who are fed a steady diet of media violence, show increased aggression towards senior citizens to the point of terrorizing them in communities around the world. Another major cause is that today’s schools are no longer teaching kids the basic courtesy that used to be an important part of our education. Finally, knowledge gap between older generations ans the reat of the society is found to be the third contributing factor. With the accelerating pace of personal information technology in particuliar , many old folks who are computer illiterate are more likely to be treated disrespectfully. 20) Therefore, --21) Thus,---22) As a result, --23) Consequently, --24) As a (natural) consequence, --例：谈集体学习的好处。 On the one hand， group study is indeed an effective approach to learning. This is mainly because every student in the group has his or her unique perspective. As a result, more new ideas can be generated through in-depth discussions, and more creative solutions can be found through teamwork and cooperation. Moreover, compared with tedious individual study, organizing students into several groups is more likely to enhance their learning efficiency and foster their interest in the pursuit of knowledge. 25) lead to--26) give rise to--27) contribute to--28) result in--真题: Many people use distance-learning programs(study material post, TV, Internet, etc.) to study at home, but some think that it cannot bring as benefits as attending college or university. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Despite the convenience and relatively low costs of distance learning, it would be wise for us to consider its downside. One of the biggest problems is that it cannot create an environment that is condusive to the students’ learning process, especially the much-needed interaction with their professors and classmates. This may result in a terrible sense of disconnection and even social isolation among the learners. In comparison, attending college or university is a more pleasant and exciting experience for young students as they can combine academic learning with a wide variety of social and extracurricular activities. 29) Fortunately,--30) Unfortunately, --31) Surprisingly(enough), --32) Not surprisingly, --33) Interestingly(enough), --34) Tragically, --例: 谈在公共场所禁烟的必要性 From a public health point of view, it is absolutely necessary to ban smoking in all public places, including restaurants, subway stations, office buildings and streets. this is essentially
because many non-smokers are often forced to breathe in side-stream smoke exhaled by smokers. Study after study has confirmed that second-hand smoking leads to a more insidious health risk since such type of smoke contains more, smaller particles and is therefore more likely to be deposited deep in the lungs. Unfortunately, the extremely lucrative nature of the tabacco industry typically discourages many governments of the world to take resolute actions against smoking. Tragically, the adverse effects of passive smoking are not discovered untill our health has suffered extensive damage.