自编构词法总结_图文

构词法 Word Formation
在英语中词的构成方式主要有三种:合成、转化和派生。 一、 合成 Compounding 两个或更多的词合成一个词。 方式:1. 直接写在一起。 2. 用连字符(-)连接。 3. 由两个分开的词构成。 (1) 合成形容词 方式 1 形容词+形容词 2 形容词+名词 3 形容词+现在分词 4 形容词+过去分词 5 形容词+名词-ed 6 名词+名词-ed 7 名词+形容词 8 名词+现在分词 9 名词+过去分词 10 副词+形容词 11 副词+现在分词 12 副词+过去分词 13 数词+名词
14 数词+名词+形容词

15 数词+名词-ed

例词 red-hot first-class, full-time, part-time good-looking, free-thinking, ready-made good-tempered, middle-aged, cold-blooded iron-willed world-famous, day-long beauty-loving, freedom-loving, job-hunting, man-made, water-covered, ever-green hard-working, far-seeing well-prepared, quickly-cured, well-known five-year five-year-old four-legged, six-storied

(2)合成动词 构成方式 例词 1 名词+动词 day-dream 2 副词+动词 overcome, upturn 翻起 3 形容词+动词 white-wash (3)合成名词 构成方式 例词 1 名词+名词 horseback , bank-note, newspaper, cellphone, 2 形容词+名词 back-yard, forehead, 3 动名词+名词 hiding place, reading-room 4 动词+副词 get-off, break in, 5 副词+动词 output, overflow (4)合成副词 however, maybe, wherever, whenever, forever (5)合成代词 whoever,, whatever, everyone, nobody, myself, something, anything, 二、派生 Derivation 前缀 前缀 含义 a处在…… en使可能 dis不,否定 un不 做相反动作 in-

例词 arise, aside, alone enrich, enable, enslave dissatisfy, dishonest, disappear, disorder, disagree unable, unknown, uncommon, uncomfortable, unfair, unclose, undress, uncover, untie inactive, incapable, inpatient, incorrect
1

imirilnondeantimisre coex tele superunderintersubtransvicesemibi tri mulkilo-

不,非

impossible, impersonal, impolite, immature, impractical

不,非
向相反方向发展

反(对) 错误的,坏的 重复,再 共同 以前的 远程 在上面,超级 在……之下 相互,之间 下,次 过,穿过,变 副 半 两个 三个 多,多种 千

irregular, irresponsible illogical, non existent, non-interference, non-conductor, non-stop Decentralize(分散), defrost(解冻) anti-freeze, anti-fascist misdoings, misunderstand, misfortune rewrite, remarry, reunite, recycle, co-exist, co-operate, co-education Ex-husband, ex-president telephone, telegraph, telescope supermarket, superpower, underline, underestimate, underground, international, interact, inter-change subtitle, submarine, subconscious, subcontinent, transformation(变形), translate vice-premier, vice-president semifinal, semicircle, semi-automatic bicycle, biennial 两年一次的 triangle 三角形, tricycle 三轮脚踏车, triplets 三胞胎 multiply, multi-national, multi-coloured kilometre, kilogram

后缀 后 缀 -er -ess -or -ar -ese -ian -ist -ent/-ant -ment 名 -ness 词 -tion -ing -ship -age -ty -th -ance -ence -ful -al

例 词 farmer, weaver, pain-killer, murderer, , villager, stranger, speaker, cooker, recorder, heater actress, waitress, princess, hostess conductor, sailor, transistor, operator, beggar Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese musician, Egyptian, physician scientist, dentist, communist, socialist, assistant argument, judgment, government happiness, greatness, illness, coldness, sleeplessness
dictation, preparation, repetition, action, information, invention

building, wedding, painting leadership, friendship, hardship shortage, marriage, leakage loyalty, cruelty, penalty, sixty, twenty, thirty, certainty truth, warmth, length, growth, fifteenth, fourth acceptance, assistance, reliance, appearance dependence, confidence, reference, entrance, defence mouthful, handful, plateful, refusal, denial, arrival
2

-y -dom -ism

difficulty, possibility, freedom, wisdom, kingdom socialism, materialism

注意: -ese, -ian, -ist 既可以构成名词,又可以构成形容词。 -er 构成的名词,既有表示人的,又有表示物的。 后缀 例 词 -al central, industrial, national, natural -an European, American, Australian -ern eastern, northern, southern -able reasonable, horrible, terrible, believable, comfortable, forgettable, sensible -ful careful, cheerful, grateful, faithful, -ish childish, Swedish, selfish -ive destructive, collective, active, creative, effective -y thirsty, dirty, windy, sunny, cloudy, healthy, funny -less careless, hopeless, helpless, homeless, sleepless, fearless, limitless -en golden, wooden, woolen -ous courageous, famous, continuous, serious, various -ary imaginary, revolutionary, secondary -ic realistic, historic, poetic 形 troublesome, burdensome, lonesome, handsome 容 -some childlike, womanlike, manlike 词 -like -ant ignorant, significant, observant, important -ent diligent, silent, excellent, frequent -ly lively, friendly, lovely, weekly, brotherly, motherly -ish childish, foolish 后缀 -ize 动 -en 词 -fy 后 缀 副 -ward(s) 词 -ly 例 词 realize, modernize, mechanize, criticize, widen, strengthen, lengthen, sharpen, widen, shorten, quicken, deepen Simplify, beautify, terrify, 例 词 forward, northward, backward, downward,afterwards slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, happily, friendly

三、转化 Conversion: 指一个词不变化词形,而由一种此类转化为另一种词类或几种词类。 1. 名词和动词之间的转化 telephone 电话——打电话, mirror 镜子——像镜子一样反映, drink 喝——饮料, record 录音——记录, name, date, hand, study, 2. 形容词转化为动词 3.名词转化为形容词(副词) 4.形容词转化为名词 perfect 完美的——使完善 front 前面——前面的 chief 主要的——首领

3

高考英语合成词
N+N= N airline airmail airport airspace background barbershop baseball basketball bathroom bathtub bean curd bedroom birthday birthplace classroom countryside cupboard database doorbell dustbin eggplant eyesight farmland fingernail fireworks flashlight football framework greengrocer handbag headline homeland hometown homework housewife housework human being ice-cream keyboard mailbox mankind motherland motorbike necklace network newspaper northeast northwest notebook oilfield pancake paperwork pineapple ping-pong railway rainbow seafood seagull seashell seaside seaweed shopkeeper sideroad sidewalk sideway skyscraper southeast southwest spaceship suitcase sunlight table tennis taxpayer teamwork textbook thunderstorm timetable toothbrush toothpaste trolley bus videophone volleyball warehouse watermelon website weekday weekend X-ray N+V=N backache butterfly earthquake haircut handwriting headache household motorcycle rainfall roller skating sightseeing stomachache sunshine toothache N+Prep /Adv=N looker-on passer-by V+N=N breakfast breakthrough chopsticks crossroads living-room playroom playground playhouse postcard postcode skateboard spokesman spokeswoman statesman stateswoman statesman stateswoman typewriter waiting-room washroom Prep /Adv+V=N download income outcome output underwear V+Adv=N drawback check-out Prep/ Adv+N=N downtown outline outside underground Adv+N=N blackboard broadcast deadline freeway highway hot dog mainland nobody popcorn raw material softball software supermarket wildlife Adj+Adv=N roundabout Adj+V=N shortcoming -al arrival chemical memorial mineral musical survival trial -ance / -ence absence allowance appearance assistance circumstance coincidence conference consequence convenience defence difference disappearance entrance evidence existence guidance importance independence insurance intelligence offence patience performance preference reference significance silence violence -ary / -ery anniversary bravery dictionary discovery robbery scenery slavery
4

派生词
-age baggage disadvantage marriage package passage percentage postage storage

summary -cy accuracy currency emergency fluency tendency -dom freedom wisdom -ar /-er /-or beggar carrier computer cooker counter dinner eraser error latter laughter liar prayer receiver recorder register rubber shower tanker thriller handful spoonful -ght flight height weight -ice choice justice service -ing boating bowling

boxing building crossing ending farming feeling greeting hearing hiking lightning meaning meeting opening outing painting parking reading saying shopping sightseeing smoking spelling suffering swimming thinking training turning wedding -ism /-ist Buddhism Buddhist communism communist socialism socialist specialist tourism tourist -ty /-ty ability activity anxiety difficulty disability electricity equality

generosity identity liberty majority minority nationality possibility reality responsibility safety security -ment achievement adjustment advertisement agreement amusement apartment appointment argument arrangement assessment commitment development disagreement
encouragement

-ship friendship hardship ownership relationship scholarship -th death depth growth length strength truth warmth -sion admission collision comprehension conclusion decision discussion division expression extension impression permission possession profession revision suspension tension -tion /-ation abortion accommodation acquisition action adaptation addition administration application assumption attention attraction celebration civilization

entertainment equipment judgement movement punishment requirement settlement statement treatment
unemployment

-ness business darkness goodness happiness illness kindness sadness sickness weakness

collection communication competition composition congratulation connection conservation consideration constitution construction contribution conversation corporation correction decoration description destination devotion dictation direction discrimination distinction edition education evolution exhibition expectation explanation foundation friction identification immigration information institution instruction intention introduction invention invitation irrigation liberation motivation nutrition occupation operation organization pollution population
5

position preparation prescription presentation production production pronunciation protection punctuation protection punctuation qualification question radiation reception recreation regulation relation reputation reservation restriction revolution satisfaction separation situation starvation suggestion translation vacation -ure creature departure failure mixture pleasure pressure signature -y enquiry entry injury sympathy symphony 合成性及物动词 broadcast

download overcome overcome overlook underline undertake 派生性及物动 disdiscourage discover dislike disobey enencourage enlarge -en fasten frighten ripen sharpen strengthen foreforecast foresee mismistake
misunderstand

-ify clarify classify simplify terrify
前缀派生形容词

prepredict preview rerecycle rebuild reform refresh replace retell reuse review rewind rewrite unundo unfold unlock uncover unload

il-, im-,in-,irillegal impossible incorrect independent irregular irrelevant irresponsible nonnon-stop non-violent ununable unbearable unbelievable uncertain uncomfortable unconditional unconscious undivided unfair unfit unfortunate unhappy unhealthy unimportant unknown unlucky unmarried unpleasant unsafe unsuccessful untrue unusual unwilling
后缀派生形容词

able accessible admirable available

changeable comfortable enjoyable flexible horrible portable possible probable reasonable reliable stable suitable terrible valuable -al abnormal actual agricultural annual casual central conventional digital equal federal festival final fundamental general legal mental metal moral national natural normal optional oral oval personal punctual royal spiritual total traditional usual visual vital

-cal botanical chemical classical electrical local medical musical physical political practical skeptical technical theoretical typical vertical -ial artificial beneficial commercial confidential controversial facial initial official potential racial social special -ant abundant brilliant constant distant elegant fragrant important instant merchant pleasant pregnant relevant vacant -ent absent ancient apparent confident
6

consistent convenient different evident excellent fluent frequent innocent permanent present silent transparent urgent violent -ate adequate appropriate considerate delicate desperate favourite fortunate immediate late private -ic academic alcoholic allergic athletic authentic automatic basic bureaucratic catholic characteristic classic cubic dynamic electric electronic energetic enthusiastic fantastic magic Olympic optimistic panic

plastic public scientific specific systematic -ive active aggressive alternative attractive conservative expensive native passive primitive radioactive sensitive subjective tentative -less breathless careless cordless endless harmless hopeless regardless stainless useless worthless -ous ambiguous anxious autonomous cautious curious dangerous delicious famous generous humorous mountainous nervous obvious poisonous precious religious ridiculous

serious various -y angry busy clumsy cosy crazy dirty dizzy dusty easy empty fancy funny gay greedy guilty handy happy healthy heavy hilly holy hungry lazy lucky merry messy muddy noisy only pretty ready shabby shy silly sleepy sorry steady tidy tiny ugly wealthy worthy -ary / -ory arbitrary compulsory

contemporary contradictory contrary extraordinary literary necessary ordinary primary satisfactory temporary voluntary -ly daily early friendly likely lively lonely lovely weekly -some awesome handsome tiresome troublesome -ful awful beautiful careful cheerful forgetful grateful harmful helpful hopeful merciful painful peaceful powerful skillful successful thankful useful wonderful 合成形容词 cold-blooded downtown

easy-going everyday hardworking inland kind-hearted left-headed leftover man-made nationwide nearby outgoing outspoken outstanding overhead overweight part-time right-handed roundabout round-trip secondhand simple-minded smoke-free so-called so-so straightforward sunburnt fax-free underground warm-hearted wayside well-known widespread world-famous worldwide worthwhile 转化形容词 amazing boring challenging disgusting disturbing exciting flaming following freezing interesting leading
7

living missing moving surrounding willing accustomed addicted ashamed

bent bored born bound broken closed crowded delighted

disabled drunk excited fried frightened furnished gifted interested

learned married mistaken pleased puzzled skilled spoken fired

upset used worn worried wounded

8


相关文档

英语构词法总结
构词法简单总结
构词法总结
英语构词法归纳总结[原创]
构词法常用前后缀分类总结
英语单词构词法 和常见词根总结txt
构词法 后缀总结
【构词法】高中英语单词词根、前缀、后缀大总结
高中英语构词法.总结
海文考研英语—吴耀武老师的构词法总结“515构词法”
电脑版