托福作文满分速成法

Integrated Writing Task How the Integrated Writing Task is phrased: If the lecture challenges the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways: ?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on sp ecific points made in the reading passage. ?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge specific claims/arguments made in the reading passage. ?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they answ er the problems raised in the reading passage. Showing Challenge In the lecture, the professor made several points about______________. The professor argues that__________________. However, the reading contends that________________. The professor’s lecture casts doubts on the reading by using a number of points that are con trary to___________________________. The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that________________ _. According to the professor,________________________________. _______________ differs from the reading in that the reading states _____________________ __________. The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because_____________________ __. Another point that the professor uses to casts doubt on the reading is ___________________ ________________. The professor claims that______________________________________. However, the reading states _____________________________________.

This point is contradicted by_____________________________________. Finally, the professor stated that, on the contrary of the reading, ________________________ _____________. In other words,______________________________________. This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because______________________ _____. In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contradict the reading. _________________and_______________ demonstrate that ___________is in doubt. If the lecture supports or strengthens the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways: ?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they suppo rt the explanations in the reading passage. ?Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they stren gthen specific points made in the reading passage. Showing support In the lecture, the professor made several points about_______________. The professor argues that______________________________. The points made by the professor agree with________________. In fact, the examples used by the professor support_________________. The first point that the professor uses to support the reading is that_____________________ __. According to the professor,_____________________________. _______________________supports the reading, which holds that_______________________. The point made by the professor supports the reading because_____________________. Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that_______________. The professor claims that_________________________________.

This point agrees with the reading, which contends that______________. __________________ shows the truth of the reading because___________. Finally, the professor stated that, in support of the reading, ____________________________ __. Specifically,__________________________________________. This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because_____________________ ______. In conclusion, the points made in the lecture support the reading. ________________ and ________________________demonstrate that ____________________ ____is invalid. 接下来,我将以如下例子来告诉大家如果提炼“魔板”: Getting the Templates The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the be havior of stags. The professor shows how the actions of animal can be interpreted in different wa ys. For example, some people interpret the stag’s actions as being for the “good of the species,” but the professor shows that the stag is actually acting in self-interest. This casts doubt on the r eading because it appears that the crickets’ behavior can be interpreted as helping only individual crickets and not the group as a whole. The professor then talks about the results of the experi ment, which seems to indicate the crickets are acting only in self-interest. Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the inte lligence of animals and insects. As he states, it would seem to require a lot of intelligence to eval uate how a behavior will affect an entire species. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; a cricket is probably unable to think of the consequences of its actions. It is more lik ely that the cricket is only acting out of self-preservation, as the professor indicates. The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about______ ____________________________. The professor shows that_____________________________________. For example, ______________________________, but the professor shows that____________ ___________________________. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that________________________________ _.

The professor then talks about_________________________, which seems to indicate that___ ________________________. Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about_______ ___________________________. As he states, it would seem to___________________________. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely;______________________________ _______. It is more likely that________________________, ad the professor indicates. 实际上,大家从上面这个例子就可以发现“魔板”的提取过程就是这样的: ?先认真读完一篇满分范文 先认真读完一篇满分范文 ?再用笔划掉其中涉及题目具体内容的部分 再用笔划掉其中涉及题目具体内容的部分 ?最后把余下来的部分抄写下来即可 最后把余下来的部分抄写下来即可

GRE/GMAT

1. 开头段 In this argument, the arguer concludes that sending the mechanics of GAA to a two-week QC S on proper maintenance procedures will automatically lead to improved maintenance and to great er customer satisfaction along with greater profits for the airline. To support the conclusion, the a rguer points out that the performance of the maintenance crews in the automobile racing industry improved markedly after their crews had attended the seminar. In addition, the arguer reasons t hat since the maintenance crews of the automobile racing industry and the mechanics of GAA per form many of the same functions, the airlines will gain similar benefits from the training program. This argument suffers from several critical fallacies. In this argument, the arguer recommends that C should advise its citizens to install both air conditioners and fans for cooling in order to reduce the cost of electricity. To justify this claim, th e arguer provides the evidence that many citizens of C suffer from the rising costs of electricity. I n addition, he cites the result of a recent study that using fans alone costs more than using air c onditioners alone, and that using both fans and air conditioners costs less than either using fans or air conditioners alone. A careful examination of this argument would reveal how groundless the conclusion is.

In this analysis, the arguer claims that P University should offer employment to the spouse of each new faculty member that they hire. To substantiate the conclusion, the arguer cites the ex ample of B College where professors prefer to have their spouse employed in the same geographi cal area. In addition, the arguer assumes that this offer of possible job for their spouse on the c ampus, no matter whether it will be accepted, is the only factor that new professors consider in deciding whether to accept a university position. This argument is unconvincing for several critical flaws. In this argument, the arguer advocates that the C Corporation should hire DF, a family owne d local company that offers varied menu of fish and poultry, instead of GT Company, the present supplier of food in C’s employee cafeteria. The recommendation is based on the observation that the GT is expensive, that its prices have kept rising, that it does not serve special diets, and tha t three employees complained about it. Meanwhile, the arguer assumes D to be a better choice f or C because a sample lunch of this company that the arguer happened to taste was delicious. T his argument is problematic for two reasons. The conclusion in this argument is that F College can expect to increase enrollment by promi sing to find jobs for students after graduation. In support of this prediction, the arguer claims tha t college-bound students are increasingly concerned about job prospects after graduation. Moreove r, the arguer assumes that this attempt has three benefits: (1) to enable F to compete with more famous schools; (2) to encourage students to start career preparation early; (3) to encourage st udents to complete their coursework. This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified and unw arranted assumptions. 2. 中间段 First, the argument is based on a false analogy. The arguer simply assumes that airplane me chanics and automobile maintenance crews perform many similar functions, but he does not provi de any evidence that their functions are indeed comparable. As we know, the structure, operation and function of airplanes and those of automobiles differ conspicuously. It is true that both the airplane and the automobile need refueling and engine maintenance, but even here there exist fu ndamental differences: the structure and the building materials of each other’s engines are differe nt, so is the oil they use. Therefore, even though the two-week Quality-Care Seminar proved effe ctive in improving the performance of the maintenance crews in the automobile racing industry, th ere is no guarantee that it will work just as well for airplane mechanics Second, the arguer commits a fallacy of hasty generalization. Even if the maintenance of the airline has been improved as a result of sending its mechanics to the Seminar, which is, of cours e , unwarranted assumption, it does not follow that there will be greater profits as well as greate r customer satisfaction for airline. As we know, customer satisfaction depends on several major fa ctors other than good maintenance of the airplane. For instance, customers are generally concern ed about the punctuality, the on-board service, the ticket price, the luggage handling procedure a nd even the discount, all of which are ignored by the arguer. Besides, the arguer does not provid e any solid information concerning how the airplane can improve its profits. Unless Get-Away Airli nes can significantly increase its customers or passengers and at the same time cut down its cost

s, both of which are unknown from this argument, there is no guarantee that it will “inevitably” h arvest greater profits. Actually, the arguer’s recommendation of investing in this training program a the only way to increase customer satisfaction an profits would most probably turn out to be in effective and misleading. In the first place, the arguer fails to take into account the geographical factors in the analysi s. While we informed that there are wide geographical differences in the nation of Claria, and tha t many citizens are experiencing rising costs of electricity, the arguer fails to make clear the exact number of those citizens or their percentage in the national population, as well as the geographi cal distribution of these citizens. If only a small portion of the whole population are experiencing the rising costs of electricity while most familiars do not have similar experience, then the reason might be that the former do not use electricity sparingly. In this case, the rising costs of those fa milies have nothing to do with what kind of electric appliance they use to cool their house. Or if only families living in hot areas are spending more money on cooling, then it is unwise to require citizens living in temperate and frigid zones to install both fans and air conditioners, in the abse nce of all this information, it is impossible for us to install both fans and air conditioners. In the absence of all this information, it is impossible for us to evaluate the recommended policy that is intended to help every household nationwide to reduce their electricity cost. In the second place , the comparison in this argument is incomplete and selective, the arguer discovers that using fans alone is more cost effective than using air conditions alone, and that u sing both fans and air conditioners are the least expensive way of cooling. However, the arguer f ails to provide any information regarding the actual amount of time for using, respectively, fans al one, air conditioners alone, and both fans and air conditioners in those three groups of surveyed families. It is very likely that these three groups of families are located in three very different cli matic regions of Claria, and hence the amount of days of the year during which they need to co ol their houses varies significantly. Families living in cooler areas of the nation certainly cool their houses for fewer hours and hence use less electricity than families living in hot areas, no matter what cooling appliance they use. Unless we are certain that the surveyed families ling in the sam e climatic region, or that they need to cool their houses for the same amount of hours in the sa me year although they live in different regions, which is very unlikely, we have every reason to d oubt the trustworthiness of this comparative study. Furthermore on electricity may be using more electricity for purposes other than cooling. Unless the arguer also takes this factor into considerati on, the comparison is unconvincing. First of all, the argument is based on a hasty generalization. According to the cited studies, p rofessors at Bronston College are happier living in small towns when their spouses are also emplo yed in the local area than when their spouses work in distant areas, which is understandable. Thi s fact tells very little about what actual conditions the professors often consider as important whe n they choose where to work. Even if we accept the arguer’s assumption that whether their spou se can find a job in the local area Is the only important question that new professors consider w hen they decide whether to accept is it likely that the professor will consider accepting the univer sity’s offer. Consequently, it is unwarranted to assume that new professors will accept Pierce’s off er whether their spouse can find satisfactory employment in the local area.

In addition, the arguer fails to consider several other relevant factors that may influence prof essors’ decision. For instance, since Pierce’s location is not ideal, the pay it offers should be high enough to be attractive. New gifted professors are also concerned about the position they can ha ve and the courses they supposed to teach in the new university. What’s more, what researchers care most about might be the university’s research conditions such as laboratory equipments, ad equate research funds, etc. Finally, the arguer hints that the morale of Pierce’s entire staff is low, but he fails to analyze the causes. Is it because the management of the university is poor, or because the pay is too l ow, or because the local area stuffers from economic depression, or because the local environmen t is severely damaged by industrial pollution? Under these circumstances, offering employment to t he spouse would be ineffective at all for the purpose of attracting more new professors. Furtherm ore, if these problems do exist, even if Pierce succeeds in hiring many of the most gifted teacher s and researchers of the country, the general moral of the whole faculty would remain low. The major problem with this argument is that the arguer fails to convince us that Cedar’s pre sent supplier the Good-Taste should be fired. First, the fact that the Good-Taste is the second m ost expensive caterer in the city may be due to its better foods, quality service and high reputati on in this industry. Second, the fact that it prices have been rising for the last three years may b e due to nationwide inflation or the rising cost in the food industry. Third, the fact that Good- Ta ste refuses to serve special diets does not indicate that it cannot meet the needs of Cedar Corpor ation unless the arguer can demonstrate that Good-Taste served special diets at first and now it r efuses to do so hence disappointing Cedar’s employees complained, which makes it impossible for us to e valuate the overall service of Good-Taste. Maybe these three people are those few on s pecial diets. Even if they have every reason to complain about the foods or service of the supplie r on a certain day, these three people’s opinion lacks the necessary representativeness based on which we can make any general judgment concerning the overall performance of Good-Taste. Another point worth considering is the arguer’s hasty generalization. We are informed that Dis count serves fish and poultry, but we do not know whether Cedar’s employee all prefer this limite d menu. We can believe that one sample lunch that the arguer happened to taste was indeed de licious, but based on this slim information, we can never evaluate the overall performance of Disc ount. One major assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal relationship claimed between colleg e-bound students’ increasing concern abut job prospects after graduation and their expectation on the university to find jobs for them. Students’ increasing concern about job prospects may mean that when they choose which university to go to they prefer those universities that can offer the majors most likely to lead to more job opportunities and higher income after graduation. They m ay also be more interested in prestigious universities because their students are more competitive and more welcomed in the job market. As is known to everyone, in a market economy, promising to find jobs for students is impractical and hence rather doubtful. This strategy may prove misle ading and counterproductive in the end. Instead of promising jobs to students, Foley College shou ld devote its resources and efforts to offering more majors with good job prospects as well as att racting more prestigious professors to enhance its reputation.

In addition, the conclusion is based on a gratuitous assumption that promising students jobs will make students more conscious in their study. This, however, is unwarranted. When students do not have to worry about their employment after graduation, they feel no pressure in their stu dy; as a result, they will become more passive and dependent and gradually lose the initiative to improve themselves. Although it is more likely that they will complete their coursework, but whe n they graduate, no company would like to employ them. By then the university’s promise will tur n not to be meaningless. 3. 结尾段 In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is in valid and misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to prove that college-bound students are most concerned about the promise of jobs after graduation and the F College can keep its promise in the end. Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation u ntil the arguer can provide concrete evidence that promising students jobs can actually encourage them to work harder in their study. Otherwise, the arguer is simply begging the question throug hout the argument. To conclude, the argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we accept the conclusion, t he arguer must present more facts that GT has indeed to meet the requirements of C Corporatio n. To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to produce more evidence concerning the foo ds and service of D and how they can better meet the needs of C’s employees. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that an offer of employment to the spouse is the only condition that new professors consider on accepting P’s offer. Additionally, the arguer must provide evidence to rule out other possible causes of the low staff morale at the university. To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does no t lend strong support to what the arguer maintains. To strengthen the argument the arguer woul d have to provide more evidence concerning the percentage of the affected families and their geo graphical distribution. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information regardin g the electric expense relevant to the actual amount of time for cooling among, respectively, the three groups of households and the amount of electricity used for other purposes in all three gro ups of families under survey. In conclusion, the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between sending Get-Away’s mechanics to the Quality-Care Seminar and improved maintenance, greater customer satisfaction a nd greater profits for the airline. To strengthen the argument, the argument, the arguer would ha ve to provide evidence that automobile maintenance and airplane maintenance are similar in every aspect. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about the relationship between improved maintenance and greater customer satisfaction along with greater profits. 由以上 5 篇文章我们可以提炼出以下“魔板”:

1. In this argument, the arguer concludes that .To support the conclusion, the arguer points out that .In addition, the arguer reasons that .This argument suffers from several critical fallacies.

First, the argument is based on a false analogy. Second, the arguer commits a fallacy of hasty generalization. In conclusion, the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between and . To strengthen the argument, the arguer would have to provide evidence that . To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about . 2. In this argument, the arguer recommends that . To justify this claim, the arguer provides the evidence that .In addition, he cites the result of recent study that . A careful examination of this argument would reveal how groundless the conclusion is. In the first place, the arguer fails to take into account the geographical factors in the analysi s. In the second place, the comparison in this argument is incomplete and selective. To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does no t lend strong support what the arguer maintains. To strengthen the argument, the arguer have to provide more evidence concerning . To better evaluate the argument, we would need more infor mation regarding . 3. In this analysis, the arguer claims that . To substantiate the conclusion, the arguer cites . In addition the arguer assumes that . This argument is unconvincing for several critical flaws. First of all, the argument is base on a hasty generalization. In addition, the arguer fails to consider several other relevant factors that may influence . Finally, the arguer hints that , but he fails to analyze the causes. As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that . Additionally, the arguer must provide evidence . 4. In this argument, the arguer advocates that . This recommendation is based on the observ ation that . Meanwhile, the arguer assumes . This argument is problematic for two reasons. The major problem with this argument is that the arguer fails to convince us that . Another point worth considering is the arguer’s hasty generalization.

To conclude, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we accept the conclusion, t he arguer must present more facts that . To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to pro duce more evidence concerning . 5. The conclusion in this argument is that . In support of this prediction, the arguer claims t hat . Moreover, the arguer assumes that . This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified an d unwarranted assumptions. One major assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal relationship claimed between and . In addition, the conclusion is based on a gratuitous assumption that . In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is invalid and misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to prove that . Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation until the arguer can provide concrete evide nce that . 文章最后我就用这 2 道 ARGUMENT 真题来让大家体会一下如何填空,由于篇幅有限,所以我直接给出了 答案,希望大家在自己练习“满分魔板填空法”的时候先自己按照这两道真题题目本身进行填空,再对照我 的标准答案,只有这样才能够体会到“满分魔板填空法”的精髓所在。 例题一:The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of Hopewell. “Two years ago, the town of Ocean View built a new municipal golf course and restore hotel. During the past two years, tourism in Ocean View has increased, new businesses have opened t here, and Ocean View’s tax revenues have risen by 30 percent. The best way to improve Hopewe ll’s economy, and generate additional tax revenues, is to build a golf course and restore hotel sim ilar to those in Ocean View. 题目结论:末句。 1. 在两个事物之间进行的弱类比 在两个事物之间进行的弱类比——错误类比 错误类比(False analogy)/不全面比较或有选择比较 不全面比较或有选择比较(incomp 错误类比 不全面比较或有选择比较 lete comparison or selected comparison) 题目通过与类似事物的比较得出关于某一事物的结论(城市、学校、公司)但表层的共性并不能否定更 深层次的差异。/比较两个事物时, 只比较少数几个方面,或只比较对自己的观点有利的方面,同时忽略 或压制其他重要方面。 关键判断词: 关键判断词:Similar 改错模板:The argument relies on what might be a false analogy between OV and H. In orde r for a new municipal golf course and restore hotel in OV to serve as models which H should em ulate, the major must assume that all the relevant circumstances involving the general and initial economy are essentially the same. However this assumption is unwarranted. For example, the arg ument overlooks the possibility that the increase of OV’s tax revenues was motivated by other fac tors/concerns besides the new building in OV. Perhaps those in power changed some policies rega

rding OV’s tax revenues. As for 30 percent, perhaps the starting point is very low. Or perhaps th e improvement of OV’s tax revenues is only because a dominant geographical location in OV. 2.混淆因果关系和相关性 两个现象一起发生 和时间的先后次序 一个现象在另一个现象之后发生 。 混淆因果关系和相关性(两个现象一起发生 和时间的先后次序(一个现象在另一个现象之后发生 混淆因果关系和相关性 两个现象一起发生)和时间的先后次序 一个现象在另一个现象之后发生)。 关键判断词:Two years ago/during the past two years 改错模板:The argument is based on a known correlation between building a new municipal g olf course accompanied by a restore hotel and the enhancement of OV’s tax revenues, that the la tter is attributable, at least partly, to the former. Yet the correlation alone amounts to scant evide nce of the claimed cause-and–effect relationship. Perhaps the growth of OV’s tax revenues can be caused by other factors as well, which are absent in these particular states but present in all th e others. Moreover, the argument overlooks the fact that two years doesn’t mean forever. The ar guer has not accounted for the possibility that the geographical and demographic differences migh t even lead to opposite result. If this is the case, then the conclusion that H should follow the ex ample of OV would lack any merits whatsoever. 3.认为所有事物是恒定的 认为所有事物是恒定的 关键判断词:Two years ago/during the past two years 改错模板:The arguer’s claim unfairly infers form OV’s comparatively promotion of tax revenue s in the past that H should copy/indiscriminately imitate. Absent evidence to support this inference, it is just as likely that the global economy had been gliding. For that matter, perhaps the OV’s e xperience would contribute less to H or even nothing. Any of these assumptions, if true, would se rve to undermine the claim that H should do the same thing as OV. 例题二: Now is the time to invest in a PLG franchise so that you can profit from opening one of our gyms in your town. Consider the current trend: PLG is already popular among customers in 500 locations, and national surveys indicate increasing concern with weight loss and physical fit ness. Furthermore, last year’s sales of books and magazines on personal health totaled more than $50 million and purchases of home exercise equipment almost doubled. Investing now in a PLG f ranchise will guarantee a quick profit. 题目结论:末句。 1.整体特征不一定适合于群体中的每个个体;同样,局部特征也不能表明整体特征。 整体特征不一定适合于群体中的每个个体;同样,局部特征也不能表明整体特征。 整体特征不一定适合于群体中的每个个体 关键判断词:your town,500 locations 改错模板:The argument assumes that the general trend that PLG is already popular among c ustomers infers the trend in specific regions upon which the argument relies. Yet, the brochure fa ils to offer any evidence to substantiate this crucial assumption. Absent such evidence, it is just li kely that PLG may not be so popular in the proposed town as it in the 500 locations; for that m atter, perhaps in the mentioned region the people’s hobbies are just on the contrary, in which ev ent the arguer’s recommendation would amount to especially poor advice.

2.急于概括:在证据不足的情况下作出普遍的概括 急于概括: 急于概括 /因果关系简单化:忽略了因果关系的复杂性:一因到多果/多因合一果 /错误的两难处境:把复杂的问题简化为非此即彼的两种选择 改错模板:The recommendation depends on the assumption that no alternative means of influ encing people’s concern on personal health are available. Yet no evidence is offered to substantiat e this assumption. Admittedly, the last year’s sales of books, magazines and home exercise equip ment are some evidence that could ensure a quick profit in some sense. However, it is entirely p ossible that other relevant factors might result in no profit at all. Perhaps a much quicker profit s hould result from investing in another program. Without considering and ruling out these and othe r alternative means of reducing profit, the arguer cannot confidently conclude that PLG franchise i s a wise investment. 3.数据类问题 数据类问题(survey/study/poll) 数据类问题 (1) What procedure is used? 调查的结果是否具有代表性(representative),是否遵循了随机性原则(the principal of random ):全 体成员有同样的机会(the same opportunity)被抽到不能事先把一部分成员排除在外。 (2) How large was the sample? 抽样调查必须保证从调查对象的总体(the whole)中抽取足够大(adequate/sufficient)的样本,否则,调 查的结果就缺少可信度(credibility)。 (3)Are the statistics misleadingly vague? 调查过程与结果的叙述应该使用明确的数字,如:具体的数字、比例或百分比。而不要模糊如:many, majority,以及不知道底数的百分比。 (4)Are the statistics complete? 作者只提供了部分相关数据 (5)Are the statistics important? 数据与作者试图证明的假设之间没有必然的联系 (6)When was the survey conducted? 调查的时间可能影响结果的代表性如:人们在选举前对政治新闻的兴趣可能变大,中国 CCTV-5 对 NB A 火箭队的兴趣等 关键判断词:National surveys

(样本不具备代表性)改错模板: (1) One problem with the argument involves the cited statistics a bout sales of books and magazines. It is unreasonable to draw any conclusions about their sales i n the future based on statistics regarding last year’s. Depending on the total number of books an d magazines, it is entirely possible that those on personal health are not representative of the wh ole. For example, perhaps the sales regarding sports totaled more than $50 billion. If so, then th e arguer’s recommendation might amount to poor advice for us. (收集数据过程有误)改错模板: (2)The survey methodology might be problematic in two aspects. First, we are not informed whether the survey required that respondents choose their concern bet ween alternatives. If it did, then the results might distort the preferences of respondents, who mi ght very well prefer a certain one not provided in the survey. Secondly, we are not informed whe ther survey responses were anonymous, or even confidential. If they were not, the respondents m ight have provided responses that they believed those in power would approve of, regardless of whether the responses were truthful. In either event, the survey results would be unreliable for t he purpose of drawing any conclusions about people’s real increasing inclination.


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